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Terms in this set (21)
What is the pH of rain usually between?
5.6 and 6.5
Why is rain naturally acidic?
Ionisation of carbonic acid (formed from dissolved carbon dioxide) H₂CO₃ +2H₂0 ↔ 2H₃O⁺ + CO₃²⁻
When/how are oxides of nitrogen formed?
When fuels are burnt at high temperatures (600-900°C) as in industrial furnaces, internal combustion engines and jet engines. (also naturally occuring)
What are the oxides of nitrogen that form?
from N₂ and O₂→ 2NO
then 2NO + O₂ → 2NO₂
Nitrogen dioxide reacts reacts with rain water to form:
2NO₂ + H₂O → HNO₃ + HNO₂ (nitric acid and nitrous acid)
When/how are the oxides of sulfur formed?
During the burning of fossil fuels which contain sulfur impurities and during the roasting of sulfide ores. (also naturally occuring)
What are the oxides of Sulfur?
Compounds of sulfur +O₂ →(high temperatures)→ SO₂
2SO₂ +O₂ → 2SO₃
Reacts with water:
H₂O + SO₂ → H₂SO₃ (sulfurous acid)
H₂O + SO₃ → H₂SO₄ (sulfuric acid)
What is the nature of the nitrogen and sulfur oxides?
as they are non-metallic oxides - they are acidic.
Out of H₂SO₄, H₂SO₃, HNO₂ and HNO₃, which fully ionise in water and which dont and why?
H₂SO₄ and HNO₃ (sulfuric and nitric acid) fully ionise in water as they are strong acids. Nitrous and sulphurous acid do not because they are weak acids and only partially ionise.
What are the effects of acid rain on plants (not including soil)?
Affects photosynthesis - yellowing of leaves ie chlorophyll synthesis is disrupted
Destroys the cuticle (waxy surface cover of the leaves) ie water is lost
Ions are leeched from leaves
How does acid rain impact soils?
Speeds up leeching of essential metal ions (Mg⁺ and K⁺)
Mobilises potentially toxic metal ions (Pb²⁺, Al³⁺, Zn²⁺ and Cu²⁺)
What are the effects of mobilising Pb²⁺, Al³⁺, Zn²⁺ and Cu²⁺?
Usually are immobile and therefore cannot damage the plant. When they are mobile, they can kill the plant. The acid rain, like other metal ions, will wash these away too.
What are the effects of a free aluminium ion?
Disturb the defence mechanisms that plants use to fight disease
Damage bacteria that decompose and recycle vegetation
Adhere to the gills of fish, causing suffocation due to restricting the extraction of oxygen
What other environmental effects does acid rain have?
Run into waterways - get into drinking water (metal ions) and effect human health
What effect does the low pH have on fish
and their eggs?
Eggs and fry re sensitive to low pH - suffer excessive loss of sodium from the gills
What types of buildings are affected by acid rain?
Limestone, marble (containing calcium or magnesium carbonates) as the base will readily react with the acid and sandstone.
What are the reactions of acid rain on the limestone and marble structures?
CaCO₃ + H₂SO₄ → CaSO₄ + H₂O + CO₂
CaCO₃ + 2HNO₃ → Ca(NO₃)₂ + H₂O + CO₂
MgCO₃ + H₂SO₄ → MgSO₄ + H₂O + CO₂
MgCO₃ + 2H⁺ → Mg + H₂O + CO₂
What are the effects of making calcium sulfate?
Can dissolve in the moisture in cracks of the carbonate stone. When evaporated leaves a crystalline deposit of hydrated calcium sulfate. This is larger and therefore can crack/fracture the stone.
What are the grains of quartz that make up sandstone held together by?
Calcium carbonate or iron (III) oxide
What are the equations of acid rain on sandstone?
CaCO₃ + H⁺→ Ca²⁺ + CO₂ + H₂O
Fe₂O₃ + 6H⁺ → 2Fe³⁺ + 3H₂O
What effect does acid rain have on metals, ie on structures?
Slowly dissolves them
ie Fe + 2H⁺ → Fe²⁺ + H₂
What effect does acid rain have on zinc oxide (coating on galvanised iron)?
ZnO + 2H⁺ → Zn²⁺ + H₂O
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Latin Numbers 1 - 10
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Nitrogen and Phosphorous
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Phosphorous In the Sea
Grace's Quarterly Science Review