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MGMT 335 Exam 3
Terms in this set (58)
What is leadership?
The ability to influence a group toward the achievement of a vision or a set of goals
What are the differences between leaders and managers?
MGRS: Planning/Budgeting, Organizing/Staffing, Controlling/Problem Solving
LEADERS: Setting direction, aligning with direction through communication, motivating people to action
What is the key takeaway from the trait studies of leadership?
Abilities and personality traits predict leadership emergence
What are the leadership behaviors identified in the Ohio State studies and University of Michigan studies? What are the broad categories of leader behaviors in these studies?
Initiating Structure - Defining roles, establishing process, clear work-related communication
Consideration - Nurturing relationships, encouraging trust, fostering inter-personal respect
University of Michigan:
Production-oriented Style - Getting things done, direct, close supervision, rules and regulations
Employee-oriented Style - Relationship focus, less supervision, fewer rules
Categories include: task & people related behaviors
What is the underlying assumption of this perspective on leadership?
Good leaders should display both task and people related behaviors
What is Fiedler's contingency theory?
Step 1: Identify leadership style (relationship v task)
Step 2: Define situation
Step 3: Match leaders with situations
LEADERSHIP STYLE MUST MATCH SITUATION
leaders who describe LPC in positive terms
leaders who describe LPC in negative terms
Fiedler: What is the LPC scale?
Least Preferred Coworker
Fiedler: What defines situation favorableness?
Good leader-member relations, structured task for the work group, strong position power for leader
Fiedler: What defines situation unfavorableness?
Poor leader-member relations, unstructured task for the work group, weak position power for leader
What is the main takeaway of Fielder?
Leadership style is fixed
What is the main point of leader-member exchange (LMX) theory?
Leaders form 2 different groups of followers:
1) In-groups - the inner circle, similar to leader, more resposibility, more rewards, high job satisfaction
2) Out-groups - outside the 'inner-circle', managed by policy, fewer rewards, more likely to retaliate
What are the differences between transactional and transformational leadership?
Transactional Leaders: use rewards/punishments to shape behavior
Transformational Leaders: Inspire/excite followers:
1) Individualized consideration
2) Intellectual stimulation
3) Inspirational motivation
What is charismatic leadership?
personal abilities and talents that have extraordinary effects on followers
1) have a vision and articulate it
2) personal risk
3) sensitivity to followers' needs/emotions
4) unconventional behavior
Charasmatic leadership: Born or made?
Traits - extraverted, self-confident, achievement oriented
Change behavior - optimisitc view, passion, communicate with whole body, emotional appeals
Charasmatic leadership: Good or bad?
Can successfully influence others
Depends on the situation/vision (example: Jonestown)
What is authentic leadership?
Leaders who act in ways that are consistent with their value systems, considered to be ethical by their followers, evoke trust
What is servant leadership?
Leaders that go beyond self-interest to help followers grow/develop, use persuasion, don't look for recongnition
When is leadership less necessary? (substitutes for leadership theory)
Sometimes leadership is irrelevant:
-cohesive work groups
What is conflict?
A process that begins when one party perceives another party has, or is about to, negatively affect something the first party cares about
What individual factors cause conflict?
personality, values, emotions, knowledge/skill diversity, cultural differences
What situational factors cause conflict?
Incompatible goals, sharing resources, role ambiguity, time pressure, interdependence
What are the three types of conflict?
1) Task - Debate over ideas, cognitive/informational
2) Relationship - Interpersonal friction, negative affect
3) Process - Logistical: Who should do what Contribution: Who has done what?
What is the relationship between the 3 types of conflict and performance?
What is the role of trust and the 3 types of conflict?
How can you preempt conflict in small groups?
i. Focus on content of interactions rather than delivery style
ii. Explicitly discuss reasons behind work assignments and compromises
iii. Assign work based on task expertise (not volunteering, default, convenience)
iv. Forecast and plan for scheduling and workload problems
What are the conflict management styles? When should they be used?
1) Competing (it's my way)
Issues are important to you
Subordinates lack expertise
2) Avoiding (I'm not interested in getting involved)
Cooling off period needed
Potential dysfunction of confront
3) Accommodating (whatever you say, dear)
You may be wrong
Issues are important to the other party
Willing to give up something in exchange for future benefit
4) Compromising (satisficing)
Goals are mutually exclusive
Consensus can't be reached
5) Collaborating (a match made in heaven)
Issue is complex
Commitment is needed
Time is available
Resources from both parties are needed
Involve fixed-sum games (one person's gain is another person's loss)
Almost directly conflicting interests (each party is attempting to maximize his/her share of the fixed-sum payoff)
Simply dividing the "pie" (but, parties generally do not know exactly how large the "pie" actually is)
Involve multiple issues with multiple trade-offs
Can enlarge the pie by:
-Capitalizing on differences in parties' preferences
-Engaging in joint-problem solving
Always involves distributive component
-Still must claim value
What are the three things you need to know when preparing for a negotiation?
1) Target Point
3) Resistane Point
What are my goals/aspirations?
Goals act as an initial anchor
Final agreements are more strongly influenced by initial offers than by subsequent concessionary behavior
Making the first offer
Goals predict first offers which predict outcomes
The more complex the negotiation, the greater the anchoring advantage
Make your first offer as extreme as you can possibly justify or explain
Consider timing and other side's alternatives
Talk about your offer as long as possible
Best Alternative to a Negotiated Agreement
What would I do if we don't reach an agreement?
Your greatest source of power
Prepare your BATNA:
-Do everything you can to improve BATNA before you negotiate
-Do not fall in love with one alternative
Counterparts' perceptions of your BATNA are also very important
What's my 'bottom line'?
Anything worse than the resistance point, you prefer no agreement
Resistance point should never change unless your BATNA changes
You should never reveal your resistance point
How should you make concessions?
Allow yourself room to make concessions
Develop a rationale around each of your concessions
Make sure concessions are reciprocated
-make concessions only after getting the full list of demands
Signal information in the size of your concessions
-make your concessions smaller as you approach your goal
What information should you share in negotiations? What information should you NOT share?
Share priorities among issues (i.e., rank ordering)
-be honest about your priorities: If both sides strategically misrepresent their priorities, inefficient contracts will often result
Don't share preferences for specific alternatives on particular issues
Never disclose your resistance point!
What are the differences between going issue by issue versus talking about package deals in negotiation?
Issue by Issue: Becomes a sequential distributive negotiation, more contentious
Package Deals: Understanding interests and priorities
Finding issues to trade off - give them what they want and get what you want in return, flexibility (real and perceived)
What is power?
The capacity to influence the behavior of another person
What are the bases of power? How are they categorized?
1) Coercive power (formal power) - Ability to force someone to act
2) Reward power (formal power) - Control of desired rewards
3) Legitimate power (formal power) - Formal authority to control organizational resources
4) Referent power (personal power) - Based on interpersonal attraction (e.g. liking or admiration)
5) Expert power (personal power) - Control of desired specialized knowledge or skills
Which is the most effective source of power?
Personal power, especially expert power
What does the psychology of power tell us about people with high power versus people with low power?
Power = approach
1. Positive emotions
2. Focus on rewards
3. Automatic information processing (abstract)
5. Entering social space of others
Powerlessness = inhibition
1. Negative emotions
2. Focus on threats
3. Controlled information processing (details)
5. Withdrawal behaviors
Implications ... power corrupts
1. It certainly changes our affect, cognition, behavior
2. Upsides: assertiveness, quick decisions (the gist), positive emotion
3. Downsides: ego-involvement, lack of understanding of others, entitlement to rewards
What is political behavior?
Activities not required as part of a formal role, but that attempt to influence the distribution of advantages/disadvantages within the organization
Self-promoting, withholding key information to decision makers, making powerful allies, spreading rumors, bending the rules
Pervasive in organizational life
What are the consequences of political behavior in organizations?
Anxiety and stress
What are the "soft" and "hard" influence tactics? Which influence tactic is most effective?
Rational persuasion (logical arguments/factual evidence)
Consultation (involving others to accomplish your goals)
Inspirational appeals (appeal to others' needs, hopes, aspirations)
Coalitions (getting others to help you influence someone)
Exchange (rewards for compliance)
What is organizational culture?
A system of shared meaning held by members that distinguishes the organization from other organizations
What are the three layers of organizational culture?
Stories (e.g., Lilly - pharmacists only)
Rituals (e.g., graduation ceremonies, summer picnics)
Enactments (e.g., "Developers")
Statements of what is important to the organization
Espoused v. enacted
3) Underlying Assumptions:
What are the functions of culture?
Promotes motivation and commitment among team or organization members
Helps people in organizations understand what is important in the organization (e.g. a sense-making device)
Provides an effective control mechanism
What does it mean to have a strong culture versus a weak culture?
Strong culture: High on intensity and high on agreement/crystallization
Weak culture: Low on intensity and low on agreement/crystallization
How do we create or change culture?
What is Socialization?
Recruitment and selection
-hiring people who 'fit' the culture you want
-person-organization fit = congruence between your values and the organization's values
-process that adapts employees to the organization's culture
-Transmission of values to new members (orientation & training)
What is person-organization fit?
Enhances individual and group performance
Leads to high job satisfaction
Produces high levels of commitment
Less diversity (potentially less task conflict)
Difficult to change and innovate
Stress for those who do not fit
Mergers and acquisition examples of culture
More difficult when each company has different "ways of doing things around here"
1. German engineering
2. Uncompromising quality
3. Formal hierarchy/bureaucracy
1. American assertiveness ("cowboys")
2. Blue-collar, poorer relations
3. Relaxed, flexible atmosphere (e.g. teams)
How many violas are in a string quartet?
What type of decision making is most commonly used by the Presidential Cabinet?
In the article we discussed, what type of group we....?
What kind of decisions do top management teams make?
All of the above
How many members are in a product software design team?
Who are the 2 most signifcant defensive players on a baseball team?
Pitcher and Catcher
What was a surgical team compared to?
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