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the cool, solid portion of Earth that includes all of the crust and part of the upper mantle
the place where plates of the Earth's crust along the ocean floor are being split apart and molten rock pushes up to form new ocean floor and a mountain range
a process in which magma is slowly pushed up through cracks in a rift and then cools to form new sea floor
a primary wave or "push-pull" wave of released energy in the Earth's surface that causes a back and forth vibration in the same direction that the wave moves
a slower kind of energy wave released by an earthquake that causes vibrations at right angles to the wave's direction of travel
an energy wave from an earthquake that travels only at the surface and moves less quickly than P wave and S waves but makes the ground roll and sway
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