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Terms in this set (134)
What is Ecology?
The study of interactions among organisms and their environments.
What are the levels of organization that ecologists study? From smallest to biggest.
Species, Population, Community, Ecosystem, Biome, Biosphere.
What is a Habitat?
The area where an organism lives in an ecosystem.
What is a niche?
The full range of physical and biological conditions in which an organism lives and in which the organism uses those conditions within an ecosystem.
What is a climate?
The year-round average of the temperature and precipitation in a particular region.
What are the 3 different climate zones?
What are biotic factors?
The living components of an ecosystem.
What are abiotic factors?
The nonliving components of an ecosystem.
What is the Water Cycle?
The Movement of water between the atmosphere, ground, and bodies of water.
What is precipitation?
The return of water to Earth's surface in the form of rain, snow, sleet, or hail.
What is evaporation?
The process in which each liquid water changes to an atmospheric vapor.
What is transpiration?
The process in which water evaporates from the leaves of plants.
What is the carbon cycle?
It's the process that releases and removes carbon in the atmosphere.
What 3 processes release carbon into the atmosphere?
Respiration, Combustion, and Decomposition.
What process removes carbon from the atmosphere?
What is the nitrogen cycle?
The process that takes nitrogen gas from the atmosphere and turns it into a useable compound.
What process makes useable nitrogen?
What process returns nitrogen to the atmosphere?
What is the phosphorous cycle?
The movement of phosphorous through land, ocean sediments, and organisms. NEVER REACHES THD ATMOSPHERE.
How is phosphorous released?
What are the 3 ecological pyramids?
What pyramid can be inverted?
What are the difference between food chains and food webs?
Food webs are interconnected food chains. Food chains represent one pathway of energy.
What is ecological succession?
A series of predictable changed in a community over time.
What is primary succession?
After a disaster (such as volcanic eruption,) land that is left with no soil.
What is secondary succession?
After a disaster (such as a hurricane,) land that is left with soil.
What is the main source of energy for life on earth?
What are saprotrophs?
Another name for decomposes.
What are phototrophs?
Something that makes food through photosynthesis.
What are chemotrophs?
Something that makes food through chemosynthesis.
How much energy is passed from organism to organism in a food chain?
Where does the rest of the energy go when an organism consumes another organism?
To the environment as heat.
What are pioneer species?
The first species to populate an area during primary succession,
What is a seral community?
The community that forms after there are pioneer species living there.
What is a climax community?
A stable community best fit for an ecosystem.
How do you order these from least developed to most developed?
1. Pioneer Species
2. Seral Community
3. Climax Community
What are the 3 types of biodiversity?
What 3 things effect a population size?
-Number of births
-Number of deaths
-Movement in/out of a population
What is competition?
When organisms from the same species fight for recourses.
What is the competition exclusion principle?
"No two species can occupy the same niche in the same habitat, and both survive."
What is pH?
pH is the measurement of hydrogen ions of substances compared to water.
Which numbers on the pH scale are acids?
Which numbers on the pH scale are bases?
What number on the pH scale is neutral?
What properties of water result from it's polarity?
-High Heat Capacity
What is cohesion?
The attraction of the same substances.
What is adhesion?
The attraction of different substances.
What element must be in a compound for it to be "organic"?
What are macromolecules?
Giant molecules containing smaller molecules called monomers.
How do you form polymers?
Monomers are joined together to form polymers through a process called polymerization.
What chemical reaction occurs during polymerization?
What is dehydration synthesis?
When two monomers join together through removing water bond (one molecule of water is taken away and that connects the monomers).
What is hydrolysis?
When a molecule of water is added to break polymers back into monomers.
What are the 4 macromolecules?
What elements make up carbohydrates? What is the ratio of these elements?
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen
1 : 2 : 1
What are carbohydrate's monomers and polymers?
Monomer: monosaccharides / glucose
Polymer: polysaccharides / starch
Function of carbohydrates?
Main source of energy, plants and animals use for structural purposes.
What elements make up nucleic acid?
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Phosphorous.
What is the monomer and polymer of nucleic acid?
Polymer: nucleic acid
Function of nucleic acid?
Store and transmit hereditary or genetic information.
What are 3 types of nucleic acids?
What elements make up proteins?
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen
What is the monomer and polymer of protein?
Monomer: amino acids
What are the 3 functions of proteins?
-Controls rate of reactions and regulates cell processes.
-Some used to form bones and muscles.
-Transport substances into and out of cells or help fight diseases.
What elements make up lipids?
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen.
What are lipid's monomer and polymer?
They don't have an actual monomer, but it's made up of fatty acids and glycerol molecules in a 3:1 that makes a triglyceride.
What are the 3 functions of a lipid?
-Part of biological membrane
What are the common categories of lipids?
Fats, Oils, Waxes, and Steroids.
What 2 factors can cause an enzyme to denature?
Who discovered cells in 1665?
Who found microscopic organisms in 1674?
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
Who created the theory that all plants are made of cells in 1838?
Who created the theory that all animals are made of cells in 1839?
Who rejected the spontaneous generation theory and said that all cells come from existing cells in 1855?
Who concluded that certain structures were once free-living in 1970?
What are the 3 parts of the traditional cell theory?
-All living things are made of cells
-Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things
-New cells come from existing cells
What are 3 structures that all cells have?
Where are proteins synthesized?
What is the function of the rough endoplasmic reticulum?
Site of protein synthesis, because it has ribosomes which make it rough.
What is the function of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum?
It contains collections of enzymes that are used to preform specialized tasks, smooth because no ribosomes.
What is the function of the golgi apparatus?
It sorts, modifies, and packages proteins for export.
What is the function of vacuoles?
They store things such as water, salt, proteins, and carbohydrates.
What is the function of the lysosomes?
They break down unwanted things in the cell.
What parts of a membrane are hydrophilic and hydrophobic?
Heads = Hydrophilic
How many amino acids are in existence?
What structure is this?
What structure is this?
What structure is this?
What structure is this?
What is a cell membrane made of?
What are the 2 types of active transport?
Two types of endocytosis?
Order of the cell cycle?
G1 phase, S phase, G2 phase, M phase (repeat)
What sub-phases make up M phase?
Who discovered nucleic acids when they isolated DNA from pus cells in 1869?
Who created the transforming principle in 1928?
Who discovered DNA is the transforming principle in 1944?
What 2 people concluded that DNA was the genetic material of a cell, not protein in 1952?
What 2 people discovered the structure of DNA in 1953?
What are the 2 types of point mutation?
What are the 4 types of gene mutation?
What are the 3 steps of DNA replication?
-DNA Helicase enzymes attach to the DNA and cut the helix into 2
-Free-floating nucleotides attach to the separated stands of DNA
-DNA Polymerase enzymes help bond the nucleotides, to the old nucleotides then DNA Lysine enzymes help bond the nucleotides to one another
Where are nucleotides copied in prokaryotes?
Where are nucleotides copied in eukaryotes?
What sugar does DNA contain?
What sugar does RNA contain?
What are the pairs of nitrogen bases?
What are the 3 types of RNA?
-Messenger RNA (mRNA)
-Transfer RNA (tRNA)
-Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
What is a transgenic organism?
An organism that contain genes from other organisms also known as GMO's
What is an independent variable?
What you change in the experiment.
What is a dependent variable?
What you measure or observe in an experiment.
What is range?
The lowest value to the highest value.
What is mean?
The average value.
What fraction of water is every living thing made up of?
When you break up water what do you get?
H+ and OH-
What is polarity in water?
The slightly positive and negative ends of H2O make water an excellent solvent.
What are the 6 elements of cells?
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorous, Sulfur
What is an enzyme?
a PROTEIN that speeds up the rate of a reaction that takes place in living things.
What are the 2 forms of prokaryotes?
What are the 4 most important cellular activities?
What kind of permeable are cell membranes?
Selectively Permeable Membrane
What are important functions of a cell membrane?
Diffusion, Osmosis, Passive Transport, Active Transport.
What is diffusion?
Substances move from an area of higher to lower concentration.
What is osmosis?
Water moves in or out of a cell to equalize concentration inside and out.
What is mitosis?
The division of nuclear material during somatic cell production, created 2 identical daughter cells.
What is meiosis?
The division of nuclear material during sex cell (gamete) production. Two cycles of cell division, 1 diploid
What 2 elements does photosynthesis cycle?
CO2 and O2
How is ATP created?
It's captured from the sun and transferred to glucose bonds.
What are Mendel's 3 Laws of hereditary?
-Law of Dominance
-Law of Segregation
-Law of Independent Assortment
How can complex patterns of inheritance be characterized?
What genetic disorder is caused by trisomy 21?
What organelle does a fungus and an animal have in common? ATP
What 4 people contributed to our knowledge of DNA?
What base is in DNA, that isn't in RNA? And what does it switch to in RNA?
T becomes U in RNA
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