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IS 11/ANTHRO 41A midterm
Terms in this set (90)
influences your future
the house of wisdom
islamic holy book
aztec translator for cortez
myth of tropical nastiness
aztec war god
last aztec emperor
pedro de alvarado
lieutenant for cortez
according to lecture and reading, the most important reason for why cortez was able to defeat the aztecs at tenochtitlan was because spanish weapons and military technology were far superior to that of the aztecs
in blaut's analysis, it was true that european men in the middle ages married later in the life, population growth was more controlled in europe, and europeans managed their resources better than non-europeans
according to lecture and reading, during the middle ages maritime trade between africa and asia was almost non-existent. african states had no ships in which to engage in overseas trade routes
according to lecture, film and reading, the name of the aztec capital was tenochtitlan
according to lecture, all of roman empire collapsed in 476 ad
according to lecture, the political hierarchical structure of christian medieval european society was considered to be divinely ordained; to challenge political authority was considered a challenge against god's will.
during the first crusade, the catholic crusaders massacred hundreds of civilians in jerusalem, including muslims, jews and christians.
according to lecture, emperor constantine had tried to destroy christianity in the roman empire
according to the aztec calendar, one of the ancient gods could return to the valley of mexico once eery 52 years.
according to the requerimiento, the pope declared that the indigenous population of the Americas were to submit to Spanish rule.
in blaut's analysis, western europeans 'discovered' and conquered the Americas before Asian or African people could because of the more advanced and rational organization of European people culture, technology and social institutions.
according to lecture as well as in Blaut's analysis, during the Middle Age peasants and serfs in Europe had much more political independence than peasants and serfs had in Asia.
according to lecture, what city was the capital of the Byzantine Empire?
In what year did the Mongols conquer Baghdad?
1258 AD (Don Hun)
According to lecture and reading, protocapitalism
-was replacing agriculture as the dominant economic form in the late Middle Ages
-involved trade across thousands of miles in a relatively short time period (a year or less)
- was developing heavily around trade across the Indian Ocean
-was contributing to the rise of the middle class
In the Broken Spears book, the name of the person referred to as "the Sun" was
Pedro de Alvarado (b/c during the Night of Sorrows he was the "sun" that lit Cortez's world "we cool now")
According to lecture, which of the following supplied gold, ivory and other raw African goods by trading with the Swahili city-states?
According to lecture, which of the following, is the actual "Cradle of Civilization?"
Which of the following is blamed for the burning of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem?
As explained in lecture, movies such as "300" and "The Mummy," which were shown in class
- illustrate Eurocentric attitudes promoting Europeans as the great heroes of the world
- are a reflection of the way the contemporary West prefers to think of itself in relation to the rest of the world
- are example of ethnocentric attitudes
- presents people of European origin as more civilized than other cultural or racial groups
As seen in the film, Islam: Empire of Faith
Mecca had already become an important Arab religious center before Mohammed's birth because of the presence of the Ka'aba
European Medieval and Renaissance concepts about the microcosmos, macrocosmos and astrology
- were based on a belief that God of heaven controlled every aspect of the universe
- were based on a belief that human beings were a reflection of the larger universe
- were based on a belief that everything in the universe happens for a reason
- claimed that what happened in the larger universe directly influenced the lives of individuals human beings
The House of Wisdom, a major center of scientific learning in the Middle Ages, was located in which city?
In Blaut's own analysis, the "Myth of European Rationality"
is false; Europeans were no more rational or less superstitious than other group
According to lecture, the use of astrology in Medieval Europe
- was widespread; many Europeans believed in astrology at this time
- reflected a belief that the universe or macrocosmos was a reflection of God's mind
- reflected a belief that the individual human body was effected by the motions of the heavens
- reflected a belief that the human mind was considered closest to God, while the lower parts of the body were considered more terrestrial (or earthly)
According to lecture, the Aztecs learned of the legend that god would return to the Valley of Mexico from which of the following groups?
based on lecture, which of the following are not one of the 3 levels into which both the macrocosmos and microcosmos could be divined?
According to lecture, who conquered Constantinople and overthrew the Byzantine Empire?
According to the Medieval European ideology of the "Great Chain of Being"
- the pope was God's representative on earth
- kings and queens ruled in the name of God
According to lecture and reading and film, which god did the Aztecs think Cortez might possibly be?
After the Fall of the Roman Empire (fall of the feudal system), Western Europe was organized for nearly 1000 years by a social organization known as
a proto-capitalist system
According to lecture, which religious/philosophical tradition emerged in India in the 5th century BC
According to lecture, during the 5th century BC, in which of the following regions would you be able to find the exsitence of both republics and limited (constitutional-like, oligarchy) monarchies
According to lecture and class reading, during the Middle Ages where did the greatest concentration of shipping activity occur?
The Indian Sea
According to lecture and film, in what year did Cortez set sail for Mexico?
According to lecture, wheat was first domesticated about 10,000 to 11,000 years ago in
Cortez's allies against the Aztecs included (Malinche, Tlaxcala, Tezcoco) except for
Based on an environmental reductionist (determinist) perspective, Wittfogel and other European scholars claimed that Asia was less advanced than Europe because
irrigation needs in dry, arid portions of Asia led to the development of tyrannical, despotic rules that permitted little social change or freedom
In a tributary (or feudal) society
- there is a powerful social hierarchy, and most people are born into and remain at a particular social level
- rulers are often believed to have their position from God or the divine
- peasants and lower classes must pay some form of tribute to those above them
- all the lands are generally owned by the upper classes
According to Blaut, before 1492
European economic and political systems were not significantly different from other large civilizations found throughout the Old World at the time
According to lecture, the Requerimiento was
used by the Spanish conquistadors to justify their colonization of the Americas as representatives of the pope and the king of Spain
According to the "Broken Spears" book, how many bad omens had appeared to the Aztecs before the arrival of Cortez?
According to lecture, which religious/philosophical tradition emerged in China in the 5th century BC
In which year did Constantinople fall to the Ottoman Turks?
According to the "Broken Spears" book, when Montezuma (Motecuhzoma) looked into the mirror on the crown of the strange bird, what vision did he see?
Men at war, riding on the backs of deer-like animals
How did the people of Mexico first describe the ships of Cortez?
as floating mountains or towers
According to the "Broken Spears," when Montezuma (Motecuhzoma) first heard that Cortez wanted to meet him to face-to-face, Montezuma wanted to do which of the following?
send gifts to Cortez in hopes that he would leave the land of the Aztecs and go back to wherever he came from
Based on the "Broken Spears" reading, which of the following cities would NOT have been a member of the "triple alliance?"
According to traditional Islamic treaching, Mohamed is a(n)
According to the video, "Islam, Empire of Faith," when the first Muslims were driven from their homes in Mecca due to religious persecution they followed Mohammed to
According to lecture, rice was first domesticated about 10,000-11,000 years ago in
According to lecture, where were chickens first domesticated?
possibly both Southeast Asia and India
According to lecture and film, Cortez sailed directly to Mexico from
According to lecture and reading, the "European Miracle" perspective would claim
- the climate of Europe produced a superior civilization
- the religious values of Europeans produced a superior civilization
- the family structure of Europe produced a superior society
- the political values of Europe led to a superior society
The Great Chain of Being
- represented the social organization of Medieval Europe
- was considered to be divinely ordained
- considered social inequality to be the norm
- claimed that some individuals had been placed by God to rule over lesser people
As explained in lecture, Xerxes was king of
the Persian Empire
According to the reading and lecture, the problem with the concept of the "Orient Express" is
- it is very Eurocentric
- it ignores the massive cultural developments due to criss-cross diffusion
- it ignores the fact that highly developed civilizations emerged in many regions other than the ancient Middle East and Europe
- that it claims that only a few societies have ever managed to become "civilized"
As explained in lecture and film, the Mongol invaders
destroyed Baghdad, but then integrated into and became leaders in the Islamic world
The founder of Islam, Mohammed
lived during the period known as the "Middle Ages" or the Medieval period
Which 2 cities were indicated in the film, Islam - Empire of Faith, as large-scale cultural, religious and scientific centers?
Baghdad and Cordoba
Why did the Tlaxcalans and other indigenous Mexican groups eventually join Cortez and fight against the Aztecs
because they resented the Aztecs who dominated the region and used them as a source of human sacrifices
In Blaut's own analysis, the "Myth of European Technological Superiority"
is false because criss-cross diffusion demonstrates that no single group of people is responsible for all the world's great inventions
According to lecture, after conquering Jerusalem, ____ granted religious tolerance to Christians and Jews, as well as Muslims living in the city?
According to film and lecture, at its peak during the Middle Ages, Islamic Civilization
was much larger than the Roman Empire
The Orient Express perspective often used in many Western history books claimed that
civilization first arose in Mesopotamia and then moved primarily westwards
In 1492, King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella
sponsored Columbus on his first voyage to the New World
La Noche Triste refers to
the night when Cortez and his followers fled from the Aztec capital
According to lecture, ____ would have lived around the same time as Socrates
- King Xerxes of Persia
- Siddhartha Gautama (The Buddha)
- King Leonidas of Sparta
According to the Broken Spears book, who authorized the massacre of the Eagle Warriors at the Fiesta for Huitzilopochtli?
Pedro de Alvarado
According to the reading, film and lecture, how long did Cortez and the Tlaxcalans lay siege to the Aztec capital before it finally fell to their army?
According to lecture, the African city states which dotted the Swahili Coast in the 1300 and 1400s were well known for engaging in maritime trade and proto-capitalism with Asia.
During the period of Muslim rule over Spain, the city of Cordoba was technologically lagging behind the cities of Catholic Europe.
According to lecture, film and reading, in what year did the last Aztec Emperor surrender to Cortez?
According to lecture, bananas were first domesticated where?
Where did Mohammed destroy the idols of Mecca?
in the mosque
In Blaut's own analysis, it is true that the Christian religion in Europe provided Europeans with a much stronger sense of unity than Islam or any other religion provided people living outside of Europe.
Both the Cortez video and the "Broken Spears" book agreed that the people of Cholula had planned to massacre Cortez and his Tlaxcalan allies when they arrived in their city
In Blaut's analysis, it is definitely true that peasants in Europe who relied on rainfall farming had more political freedom and experienced less political restriction under their European lords than peasant sin Asian who relied on irrigation farming
Spain has been dominated by the Catholic faith continuously since the Fall of the Roman Empire.
According to lecture, the religion of the Persian Empire in the 5th century BC was Zoroastrianism
In Blaut's own analysis, it is true the type of tributary systems common in Europe in the medieval period was much less politically restrictive than the tributary systems found in the Middle East, Africa or Asia
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