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Federal Govt Chapter 13
Terms in this set (261)
One of the president's important roles is to serve as _________________________ of the armed forces. Times of war and national emergency have often served to ________________ the office of the presidency.
commander in chief; strenghten
By 2016, President Barack Obama will be able to look back despite his two terms as president and point to a solid record of ______________, often despite determined Republican opposition.
Under President Obama's leadership:
the nation's health care system was significantly redesigned, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act was imposed, most American troops were brought home from Iraq and Afghanistan, Osama bin Laden was killed, Congress was forced to end the 2013 government shutdown, agree to an increase in national debt limit, and end the filibuster to debate over presidential nominations.
With the president's signature in 2010, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act imposed
a major set of new regulations on the financial services sector, whose practices had been blamed for the "Great Recession" of 2008.
President Obama also suffered a number of significant failures:
His efforts to bring about immigration reform were blunted, as were his attempts to induce Congress to enact gun control legislation, his agreement to reduce economic sanctions against Iran in exchange for an Iranian promise to slow the development of nuclear weapons, remained highly controversial, with the departure of American forces, Iraq descended into chaos and sectarian violence, and Even the president's health care triumph was tempered by the errors, mismanagement, and confusion surrounding the rollout of the program in 2014.
Thus despite Obama's efforts and notable policy successes, the president and the nation continued to confront major problems including:
budget deficits, unemployment, failing schools, and challenges abroad.
The presidency was established by _______________ of the Constitution, which begins by asserting, "The executive power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America." The article describes the manner in which the president is to be ______________ and defines the ______________ of the presidency.
Article II; chosen; basic powers
Some delegates to the Constitutional Convention had argued in favor of a multiheaded executive or an "________________" in order to avoid ___________________________ in the hands of one individual.
executive council; undue concentration of power
Most of the framers, however, wanted to provide for "__________" in the executive, and they thought that a ___________ executive would be more energetic than some form of _____________ leadership.
energy; unitary; collective
The presidential selection process defined by Article II resulted from a struggle between those delegates who wanted the president to be selected by _____________ and those delegates who preferred that the president be elected directly by the _____________.
Direct popular election would create a __________ independent and ___________ powerful presidency.
With the adoption of a scheme of indirect election through an _______________, with electors to be selected by the ________ legislatures (and close elections to be resolved in the ____________________________), the framers hoped to achieve a "_______________" solution: a strong president responsible to state and national legislators rather than directly to the electorate.
electoral college; state; House of Representatives; republican
Today, in ___ of the 50 states, the candidate who wins the state's popular vote wins ____ the electoral college votes for that state. The presidential candidate with a majority of votes in the ____________—not necessarily the candidate with the most votes from the ___________—becomes president.
48; all; electoral college; people
The number of ____________ per state is equal to its number of ______________ in the House and Senate, thus small states are _________________ in the electoral college.
electors; delegates; overrepresented
The election of the American president _________ formally conclude on Election Day in November. In ______________, electors from each state cast their votes for president. The state electoral votes are then counted in _________________ in the House of Representatives, which announces the victor.
does not; December; January
The presidency was _______________ somewhat in the 1830s with the introduction of the _______________________ of nominating presidential candidates. Until then, presidential candidates had been nominated by their party's congressional delegates through a ________ system.
strengthened; national convention system; caucus
a normally closed political party business meeting of citizens or lawmakers to select candidates, elect officers, plan strategy, or make decisions regarding legislative matters
The caucus system, derisively called "___________" because any candidate for president was _____________ to the party's leaders in Congress both for the party's ______________ and for their _________ in the presidential election.
King Caucus; beholden; nomination; support
The national nominating convention arose outside Congress in order to provide some representation for a party's __________ who lived in districts where they were in the __________.
The political party in each state made its ______ provisions for selecting delegates to attend the presidential nominating convention, and in virtually all states, the selection was dominated by the ________________. (Only in recent decades have state laws intervened to _____________ the selection process and to provide, in all but a few instances, for ________ election of delegates.)
own; party leaders; regularize; open
The convention system quickly became the _____________ method of nominating candidates for ___ elective offices and remained so until well into the twentieth century, when it succumbed to the criticism that it was _________________ and dominated by a few leaders in a "________________."
most popular; all; undemocratic; smoke-filled room
But during the nineteenth century, the convention system was seen as a victory for democracy against the congressional ______. Furthermore, the national convention gave the presidency a base of power independent of ___________.
The national convention did begin to open the presidency to larger ________ forces and newly organized ___________ in society. In other words, it gave the presidency a broad popular base that would eventually demand and support ____________ presidential power.
social; interests; increased
Improvements in _______________________________ enabled individuals to share their complaints and allowed national leaders (especially presidents and presidential candidates) to _______________ directly to the people.
the telegraph, the telephone, and other forms of mass communication; reach out
Eventually, the presidential selection process began to be further democratized with the adoption of __________ elections through which millions of ________________ were given an opportunity to take part in the presidential nominating process.
primary; ordinary citizens
The real turning point in the history of American national government came during the administration of _____________________________.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
Roosevelt greatly enlarged the __________________ of the executive branch, created the ______________________, and expanded presidential responsibility for the nation's ___________.
bureaucracies; Executive Office of the President; budget
Roosevelt also led by example in the use of _________________ in place of legislation and __________________ in place of treaties, reducing the ________________ role in domestic and foreign policy, and subsequent presidents have continued both practices.
executive orders; executive agreements; congressional
Since FDR and his "________" of the 1930s, every president has been strong whether or not he was committed to the goal of a strong presidency.
Whereas Section 1 of Article II of the Constitution explains how the president is to be chosen, Sections _________ outline the powers and duties of the president.
2 and 3
specific powers granted by the Constitution to Congress (Article I, Section 8) and to the president (Article II)
Some expressed powers of the President include:
authorization to make treaties, grant pardons (except in Cases of Impeachment), nominate judges and other public officials, receive ambassadors, to take command of the military forces of the US, and to participate authoritatively in the legislative process
powers necessary to allow presidential exercise of expressed powers
In example of an implied power, the Constitution expressly gives the president the power to appoint "_________________________________" Article II does not, however, expressly grant the president the power to ___________ such officials from office.
all other officers of the United State . . . which shall be established by law.; remove
Presidents claimed that the removal power was implied by the ____________________ power. In 1926 the U.S. Supreme Court affirmed this idea in the case of ___________________.
appointment; Myers v. United States
Article II declares that the president "shall take Care that the Laws be _________________." This language implies that Congress is to _________ to the president the power to implement or execute its _____.
faithfully executed; delegate; will
constitutional powers that are assigned to one governmental agency but that are exercised by another agency with the express permission of the first
In principle, Congress delegates to the president only the power to ________________________ through which to carry out its decisions.
identify or develop the means
For example, if Congress determines that air quality should be improved, it might delegate to a ______________________ in the executive branch the power to identify the best ________ of bringing about such an improvement as well as the power to _______________ the actual cleanup process.
bureaucratic agency; means; implement
In most cases, Congress delegates power to _________________ in the executive branch rather than to the ____________, but ___________________ have found ways to capture a good deal of this delegated power for themselves.
bureaucratic agencies; president; contemporary presidents
The president's expressed powers, as defined by Sections 2 and 3 of Article II, fall into several categories:
Military, Judicial, Diplomatic, Executive, and Legislative
Commander in chief
the role of the president as commander of the national military and the state National Guard units (when called into service)
The president is also head of the nation's intelligence network, which includes:
the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) but also the National Security Council (NSC), the National Security Agency (NSA), the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and a host of less well-known but very powerful international and domestic security agencies.
The president's military powers extend into the ____________ sphere. Article IV, Section 4, provides that the "United States shall [protect] every __________ . . . against Invasion . . . and . . . domestic Violence."
The Constitution restrains the president's use of domestic force by providing that a _______________ (or __________ when the legislature is not in session) must ___________ federal troops before the president can send them into the state to provide public order.
state legislature; governor; request
First, presidents are ____________ to deploy national troops merely because the state legislature or governor makes such a request. More important, the president may deploy troops in a state or city ___________ a specific request from the state legislature or governor if the president considers it ____________ to maintain an essential national service during an ____________________________________.
not obligated; without; necessary; emergency, enforce a federal judicial order, or protect federally guaranteed civil rights
Some examples of unilateral use of presidential emergency power include:
the decision by President Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1957 to send troops into Little Rock, Arkansas, against the wishes of the state of Arkansas, to enforce court orders to integrate nine black students into Little Rock's Central High School.
And the "state of emergency" declared by President Bush during the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina in 2005 to assist with the devastation of a natural disaster, along with looting and violence.
Presidents tend to exercise unilateral power by declaring a "state of emergency," thereby making available
federal grants, insurance, and direct assistance.
The presidential power to grant reprieves, pardons, and amnesty involves power over all individuals who may be a __________ to the _____________ of the United States. Presidents may use these powers on an _____________ or a ______________.
threat; security; individual; group of people
The president is America's "_______________," its chief representative in dealings with other __________, having the power to make treaties for the United States (with the advice and consent of the Senate).
head of state; nations
President George Washington greatly _____________ interpretation of the power to "receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers," extending it to the power to "___________" other countries.
That power of recognition gives the president the almost ______________ authority to review the claims of any _____ ruling groups in order to determine whether they ___________ control the territory and population of their country, so that they can ___________ it to treaties and other agreements.
unconditional; new; indeed; commit
an agreement, made between the president and another country, that has the force of a treaty but does not require the Senate's "advice and consent"
There are actually two types of executive agreements:
executive-congressional agreement and sole executive agreement
the president will submit the proposed arrangement to Congress for a simple majority vote in both houses, usually easier for presidents to win than the two-thirds approval of the Senate that is required for a treaty.
Sole executive agreement
simply an understanding between the president and a foreign state and is not submitted to Congress for approval; were used to flesh out commitments already made in treaties or to arrange for matters well below the level of policy.
Since the 1930s, however, presidents have entered into ________________________ on important issues when they were __________ about their prospects for securing congressional approval.
sole executive agreements; uncertain
The _______________________ (GATT), one of the cornerstones of U.S. international economic policy in the post-World War II era, was based on an executive agreement.
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade;
The famous sign on President Truman's desk, "________________________," was not merely an assertion of Truman's personal sense of responsibility but also his recognition of the legal and constitutional responsibility of the president.
The Buck Stops Here
The power to appoint the ____________________ and to require each of them to report to the _______________ on subjects relating to the duties of their departments makes the president the true _____________________ of the nation.
principal executive officers; president; chief executive officer (CEO)
These appointments are at the ___________ of the president, and the loyalty and the responsibility of each appointee are presumed to be directed toward the ____________.
the claim that confidential communications between a president and close advisers should not be revealed without the consent of the president
Presidents have made this claim ever since _______________________ refused a request from the __________________________ to deliver documents concerning negotiations of an important treaty. Washington refused (successfully) on the grounds that, first, the House ___________ constitutionally part of the treaty-making process, and second, diplomatic negotiations required ___________.
George Washington; House of Representatives; was not; secrecy
Although many presidents have claimed executive privilege, the concept ________ tested in the courts until the 1971 "____________" affair.
was not; Watergate
In _________________ (1974), the Supreme Court ordered Nixon to turn over the tapes. The president complied with the order and was ______________ from office.
United States v. Nixon; forced to resign
The United States v. Nixon case is often seen as a ________________________, but in actuality, the Court's ruling recognized for the first time the legal validity of executive privilege, though holding that it ________ apply in this particular instance.
blow to presidential power; did not
Two constitutional provisions are the primary sources of the president's power in the legislative arena:
Article II, Section 3 and Article I, Section 7.
Article II, Section 3
providing that the president "shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient."
Article I, Section 7
Franklin Delano Roosevelt, began to rely on the Article II, Section 3 provision in order to become the _________________ of proposals for _________________ in Congress and the most important single participant in legislative ___________________, as well as the principal source for __________________ of national issues.
primary initiator; legislative action; decision making; public awareness
the president's constitutional power to turn down acts of Congress; a presidential veto may be overridden by a two-thirds vote of each house of Congress
a presidential veto that is automatically triggered if the president does not act on a given piece of legislation passed during the final 10 days of a legislative session
During his last two years in office, Bush vetoed ___ bills, including legislation designed to ___________ the use of harsh interrogation tactics, saying it "would take away one of the most valuable tools in the war on terror."
President Obama has used his veto power only _________ during his first six years in office.
Since the time of George Washington, presidents have used their veto power _________ times, and on only _____ occasions has Congress overridden them.
The number of presidential vetoes is higher when Congress is controlled by the ___________ party.
when Congress is controlled by the same party as the president
when Congress is controlled by the opposite party of the president
the president's inherent (implied) power to bring a legislative agenda before Congress
"___________" implies the ability to formulate ____________ for important policies, and the president, as an individual with a great deal of staff assistance, is able to initiate ______________ more frequently than Congress, with its large assemblies that have to deliberate and debate before taking action.
Initiative; proposals; decisive action
With some important exceptions, Congress depends on the president to set the agenda of _________ policy, such as proposing the government's ___________.
Examples of Presidents taking "initiative" are:
President George W. Bush's proposals regarding the war on terror, and Obama's proposals on health care reform
a rule or regulation issued by the president that has the effect and formal status of legislation
The executive order is first and foremost simply a normal tool of _______________, a power that _____________ CEO has to make "_______________"—rules-setting procedures, etiquette, chains of command, functional responsibilities, and so on.
management; virtually any; company policy
Most presidential executive orders provide for the _________________ of structures and procedures or otherwise direct the ________ of the executive branch—to be applied either across the board to all agencies or to a single agency or department.
Executive orders can also establish new ____________, as with President Nixon's order in 1970-71 establishing the _______________ (EPA).
agencies; Environmental Protection Agency
Many of the powers exercised by the president and the executive branch are __________ in the Constitution but are the products of __________________ and ________________.
not found; congressional statutes; resolutions
Over the past century, Congress has ______________ delegated a great deal of its own legislative authority to the executive branch. To some extent, this delegation of power has been an almost _________________ of the expansion of government activity in the United States since the __________.
voluntarily; inescapable consequence; New Deal
Having a vast range of federal government responsibilities, Congress ___________ execute and administer all the programs it creates and the laws it enacts. Inevitably, Congress must turn to the hundreds of ____________________ in the executive branch or, when necessary, ______________ to implement its goals.
cannot; departments and agencies; create new agencies
As they implement congressional legislation, federal agencies collectively develop thousands of _________________ and issue thousands of _________________ every year.
rules and regulations; orders and findings
Agencies ___________ Congress's intent, ____________ rules aimed at implementing that intent, and issue __________ to individuals, firms, and organizations to impel them to conform to the law.
interpret; promulgate; orders
When it establishes an agency, Congress sometimes grants it __________ discretionary authority, providing ____________ guidelines and standards that must be followed by the administrators charged with the program's implementation.
only limited; very specific
It is Congress, however, that establishes the IRS's ________ of the tax liabilities, tax __________, and tax ____________ that determine each taxpayer's burdens and responsibilities.
structure; exemptions; deductions
During the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Congress typically wrote laws that provided fairly _____________________ to guide executive implementation.
clear principles and standards
The 1923 tariff act _____________ the president to increase or decrease __________ on certain manufactured goods in order to reduce the _______________ between domestically produced products and those manufactured abroad.
empowered; duties; difference in costs
The 1923 tariff act authorized the president to make the final determination, but his discretionary authority was quite ____________. The statute listed the ___________ the president was to consider, ________ the permissible range of tariff changes, and _________ the procedures to be used to calculate the cost differences between foreign and domestic goods.
constrained; criteria; fixed; outlined
At least since the New Deal, however, Congress has tended to give executive agencies __________ mandates and to draft legislation that offers __________ standards or ____________ for implementation by the executive.
broad; few clear; guidelines
The 1933 National Industrial Recovery Act
gave the president the authority to set rules to bring about fair competition in key sectors of the economy without ever defining what the term meant or how it was to be achieved.
The 1972 Consumer Product Safety Act
authorizes the Consumer Product Safety Commission to reduce unreasonable risk of injury from household products but offers no suggestions to guide the commission's determination of what constitutes reasonable and unreasonable risks or how these are to be reduced.
During much of the nineteenth century, the federal government had relatively ______________ responsibilities, and Congress could pay close attention to details.
Today, the operation of an _____________ executive establishment and literally _____________ of programs under ___________________ circumstances requires that administrators be allowed some considerable measure of _____________ to carry out their jobs.
enormous; thousands; varied and changing; discretion
American presidents have all been _____ and have all been ___________. Until the election of Barack Obama in 2008, they had all been __________.
men; Christians; white
A majority of presidents have come from the _______________ United States, with ____________ producing the most American presidents, especially in the nation's ________ decades.
southeastern; Virginia; first
Grover Cleveland served as America's _______________ presidents. the total number of people who have served as U.S. president is ___.
22nd and 24th; 43
Some presidents switched parties during their political careers, thus the numbers sum to ________ than 43.
All presidents except ________________ had previous political and/or public service experience
Andrew Jackson was born in the Waxhaw area, on the _______________________ border.
North Carolina-South Carolina
powers claimed by a president that are not expressed in the Constitution but are inferred from it; they are most often asserted by presidents in times of war or national emergency.
After the fall of Fort Sumter and the outbreak of the Civil War, President Abraham Lincoln issued a series of executive orders for which he had _____________ authority. He asserted that these extraordinary measures were _____________ to confront this crisis. When Congress convened in July, he reported his actions to it, saying that they ______________ if Congress ________________ making them so, which it did.
no clear legal; necessary; could only be legal; passed a law
The Constitution gives Congress the power to _____________. Presidents, however, have gone a long way toward ___________ this power for themselves. Congress has not declared war since June ________, but since then, American military forces have engaged in numerous campaigns throughout the world under the orders of the ________________.
declare war; capturing; 1942; president
The wars in Vietnam, Bosnia, Afghanistan, and Iraq, and a host of lesser conflicts, were all fought ____________ declarations of war. Approximately _______________ U.S. troops have died in these military engagements, with half of that total occurring during the ______________.
without; 102,000; Vietnam War
War Powers Resolution (1973)
a resolution of Congress that the president can send troops into action abroad only by authorization of Congress, or if American troops are already under attack or serious threat
The War Powers Resolution reasserted the principle of ________________ war power, required the president to inform Congress of any _______________________, and stipulated that forces must be withdrawn within 60 days if there is ______________________ authorization for their continued deployment.
congressional; planned military campaign; no specific congressional
Presidents, however, have generally ____________ the War Powers Resolution, claiming inherent ________________ to defend the nation.
ignored; executive power
In both instances, Congress passed resolutions ____________ President Bush's actions, but the president was careful to assert that he did ___________ congressional authorization. The __________________ was barely mentioned on Capitol Hill and was ignored by the White House.
approving; not need; War Powers Resolution
President Obama, for his part, has made frequent use of ___________________ and unmanned ______________ (or drones) to conduct military operations. Congress ________ been consulted.
special operations forces; aerial vehicles; has not
Military emergencies have typically also led to ______________ of the domestic powers of the executive branch.
The USA PATRIOT Act
Within a month of the September 11, 2001 attacks, this act expanded the power of government agencies to engage in domestic surveillance activities, including electronic surveillance, and restricting judicial review of such efforts; also gave the attorney general greater authority to detain and deport aliens suspected of having terrorist affiliations.
France's system is called "________________," which is an executive system that divides power between a president and a prime minister, who have different but (theoretically) equal powers.
In Germany the most powerful position is held by the _______________ while the president plays a mostly _____________ role, similar to the United Kingdom's queen.
South Africa's president is actually more analogous to a _______________, as he _______ the legislature (and is elected by it) and runs the government, but the position also involves a _____________ role.
prime minister; leads; ceremonial
The first component of the institutional presidency is the president's ___________
the secretaries, or chief administrators, of the major departments of the federal government; Cabinet secretaries are appointed by the president with the consent of the Senate; no constitutional status.
Some presidents have relied more heavily on an "_____________." For these highest appointments, presidents often turn to people from ___________ Washington, usually longtime associates. This Cabinet also can include the ___________ officials of the White House staff.
inner cabinet; outside; ranking
National Security Council (NSC)
a presidential foreign policy advisory council composed of the president, the vice president, the secretary of state, the secretary of defense, and other officials invited by the president; est. by law in 1947; give advice on the large national security picture based on data given by all intelligences.
White House staff
analysts and advisers to the president, each of whom is often given the title "special assistant"
The judgments and advice the White House staff are supposed to provide are a ______________ and more generally ___________ than those coming from the Executive Office of the President or from the cabinet departments. They also tend to be __________ associated with the president.
good deal broader; political; more closely
an informal group of advisers to whom the president turns for counsel and guidance; members of the official Cabinet may or may not also be members of the Kitchen Cabinet
The Kitchen Cabinet has _______________ since four dozen during the Roosevelt presidency in 1937. In the spirit of transparency, the White House lists their ____________________ on the White House website.
grown substantially; names, position, and salary
Executive Office of the President (EOP)
the permanent agencies that perform defined management tasks for the president; created in 1939, the EOP includes the OMB, the CEA, the NSC, and other agencies; often called the "institutional presidency"
Somewhere between _________________ highly specialized people work for EOP agencies
1,500 and 2,000
The most important and the largest EOP agency is the
Office of Management and Budget (OMB)
The OMB roles include
preparing the national budget, designing the president's program, reporting on agency activities, and overseeing regulatory proposals
At one time the process of budgeting was a "bottom-up" procedure meaning,
with expenditure and program requests passing from the lowest bureaus through the departments to "clearance" in the OMB and thence to Congress, where each agency could be called in to explain what its "original request" was before the OMB revised it.
Now the budgeting process is "top-down":
the OMB sets the terms of discourse for agencies as well as for Congress.
The staff of the Council of Economic Advisers (CEA)
constantly analyzes the economy and economic trends in order to help the president anticipate events, rather than waiting and reacting to them.
The Council on Environmental Quality
was designed to do for environmental issues what the CEA does for economic issues
The vice presidency is a constitutional ______________ even though the office was created along with the presidency by the Constitution.
The vice president exists for two purposes only:
to succeed the president in case of death, resignation, or incapacity and to preside over the Senate, casting a tie-breaking vote when necessary.
The main value of the vice president as a political resource for the president is __________.
Traditionally, presidential candidates choose running mates who can win the support of __________ one state (preferably a large one) that __________ otherwise support the ticket.
at least; may not
Another traditional guideline holds that the vice-presidential nominee should provide some __________ balance and, wherever possible, __________________ balance as well.
regional; ideological or ethnic
As the institutional presidency has grown in size and complexity, most presidents of the past ____ years have sought to use their vice presidents as a _________________ resource after the election.
The National Performance Review (NPR),
an ambitious program to "reinvent" the way the federal government conducts its affairs.
In the Obama White House, Vice President Biden is said to be regarded as the "_________________." Biden's role is to _______________________ policy recommendations made to the president—until, of course, the president makes a ___________, at which point the vice president falls loyally into step.
skeptic-in-chief; question and criticize; decision
During the course of American history, ________ vice presidents have had to replace presidents who died in office. ______ vice president, Gerald Ford, found himself at the head of the nation when President Richard Nixon was forced to resign as a result of the Watergate scandal.
Until the ratification of the Twenty-Fifth Amendment in 1965, the succession of the vice president to the presidency was a _____________, launched by _____________ when he assumed the presidency after William Henry Harrison's death, rather than a constitutional or statutory requirement.
tradition; John Tyler
The Twenty-Fifth Amendment
codified this tradition by providing that the vice president would assume the presidency in the event of the chief executive's death or incapacity and setting forth the procedures that would be followed.
Presidential Succession Act of 1947
establishes an order of succession, beginning with the Speaker of the House and continuing with the president pro tempore of the Senate and the Cabinet secretaries; adopted during the Cold War and by fear of a nuclear attack.
Because they are generally associated exclusively with the head-of-state aspect of America's presidency, presidential spouses are usually ___________ to the same sort of media scrutiny or partisan attack as that aimed at the president.
Traditionally, most first ladies have limited their activities to the ceremonial portion of the presidency:
greeting foreign dignitaries, visiting other countries, and attending important national ceremonies.
Some first spouses, however, have had considerable influence over ________, such as ____________________________.
policy; Eleanor Roosevelt, Hillary Clinton, and Michelle Obama
________________ became the first first lady to seek public office on her own, winning a seat in the U.S. Senate in 2000 and then running for president in 2008. Obama later named her ___________________.
Hillary Clinton; secretary of state
Today, the strong-versus-weak categorization has become _______. Every president is ________, not so much as a function of personal charisma or political savvy but as a reflection of the ____________ power of the presidency.
moot; strong; increasing
Abraham Lincoln and FDR, were called "strong" for their
leadership and their ability to guide the nation's political agenda.
James Buchanan and Calvin Coolidge, were seen as "weak" for
failing to develop significant legislative programs and seeming to observe rather than shape political events.
During the nineteenth century, Congress was America's ____________ institution of government, and members of Congress sometimes treated the president with ________. Today, however, no one would assert that the presidency is unimportant.
The expansion of presidential power over the course of the past century has come about _____ by accident but as the result of an ongoing effort by ___________________ to enlarge the powers of the office.
not; successive presidents
Generally, presidents can expand their power in two ways:
through popular mobilization and through the administration.
First, presidents may use popular appeals to create a mass base of support that will allow them to dominate their political foes, a tactic called "_____________."
Second, presidents may seek to bolster their control of ____________________ or to create ________________________ that will reduce their dependence on _____________ and give them a more independent governing and policy-making capability.
established executive agencies; new administrative institutions and procedures; Congress
Presidents have a third tool:
their political party.
Each president has relied on his own party to implement his _____________ agenda. President Obama, relied on _______________ in the Senate to help his approvals to the federal judiciary win ______________.
legislative; Democrats; appointment
However, the president ___________ control his party; party members have considerable ___________. In America's system of separated powers, the president's party may be in the _____________ in Congress and _________ to do much for the chief executive's programs
does not; autonomy; minority; unable
In the nineteenth century, it was considered ____________________ for presidents to engage in personal campaigning on their own behalf or in support of programs and policies.
When Andrew Johnson broke this unwritten rule and made a series of speeches vehemently seeking public support for his _________________ program, even some of his supporters were shocked at what they saw as his lack of ______________________.
Reconstruction; decorum and dignity
The first to make systematic use of appeals to the public were _______________________________, but the president who used public appeals most effectively was ____________________________.
Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson; Franklin Delano Roosevelt
Roosevelt developed a number of tactics for forging such a link between the executive and the public:
He often embarked on speaking trips around the nation to promote his programs, FDR made effective use of a new electronic medium, the radio, to reach millions of Americans, and he was also an innovator in the realm of what now might be called press relations
In FDR's famous "_____________," the president's voice could be heard in every living room in the country, discussing programs and policies and generally assuring Americans that Franklin Delano Roosevelt was aware of their difficulties and working diligently toward solutions.
To _____________ the editors and publishers who were generally unsympathetic to his goals, FDR worked to cultivate the ___________ who covered the White House.
Roosevelt was the first president to designate a _____________, Stephen Early, who was charged with organizing the press _____________ and making certain that reporters observed the _______________ distinguishing those presidential comments that could be attributed directly to the president from those that were off the record.
press secretary; conferences; informal rules
For John F. Kennedy, handsome and quick-witted, the ____________________ was an excellent public-relations vehicle.
televised press conference
One Clinton innovation was to make the _________________________ an important institution within the EOP.
White House Communications Office
The Communications Office became responsible not only for responding to _____________ queries but also for developing and implementing a coordinated ________________________—promoting the president's policy goals, developing responses to adverse news stories, and making certain that a favorable image of the president would, insofar as possible, dominate the news.
reporters'; communications strategy
President Obama has also been the first to make full use of a new communication medium—in this case, the ____________.
Drawing on the interactive tools of the ______, Obama's 2008 and 2012 campaigns changed the way politicians ____________ supporters, _____________ to voters, ____________ against attacks, and communicate with their constituents.
web; organize; advertise; defend
The ________________ website keeps the president's constituents abreast of his policy agenda with a weekly streaming video address by the president, press briefings, speeches and remarks, a daily blog, photos of the president, the White House schedule, and other information.
Circumventing television and other traditional media, the Internet allows the president to broadcast his policy ideas ___________ to the ____________.
Popular support, though, has not been a firm foundation for presidential power: the public is notoriously ________. Almost without exception, presidential performance __________ of promises and popular expectations, leading to a __________ in public support and the ensuing ______________ of presidential influence.
fickle; falls short; decline; weakening
It is a ________ American president, such as Bill Clinton, who exits the White House _____________ than when he went in.
rare; more popular
Contemporary presidents have increased the administrative capabilities of their office in three ways:
First, they have enhanced the reach and power of the EOP.
Second, they have sought to increase White House control over the federal bureaucracy.
Third, they have expanded the role of executive orders and other instruments of direct presidential governance.
Taken together, these three components of what might be called the White House "______________________" have given presidents a capacity to achieve their programmatic and policy goals even when they are unable to secure congressional approval.
The EOP has grown from _____ administrative assistants in 1939 to several _____________ employees working directly for the president in the White House office, along with some ________ individuals staffing the several divisions of the Executive Office.
six; hundred; 2,500
The creation and growth of the White House staff gives the president an enormously enhanced capacity to
gather information, plan programs and strategies, communicate with constituencies, and exercise supervision over the executive branch.
In particular, the OMB serves as a potential instrument of presidential control over federal ____________ and hence a mechanism through which the White House has greatly _____________ its power.
The OMB has the capacity to analyze and approve all ____________ proposals, not only _______________ requests, emanating from all federal agencies before being submitted to Congress. This procedure, now a matter of ___________, greatly enhances the president's control over the entire executive branch.
legislative; budgetary; routine
Thus, through one White House agency (OMB), the president has the means to exert ________ influence over the flow of money and the shape and content of national legislation.
A second tactic that presidents have used to increase their power and reach is the process of ______________ review, through which presidents have sought to seize control of rule making by the agencies of the executive branch.
Whenever Congress enacts a statute, its ___________ implementation requires the promulgation of hundreds of ______ by the _________ charged with administering the law and effecting the will of Congress.
actual; rules; agency
Some congressional statutes are quite ___________ and leave agencies with relatively __________ discretion. Typically, however, Congress enacts a relatively _________ statement of legislative intent and then delegates to the appropriate administrative agency the power to ________ many important details.
detailed; little; broad; fill in
Obama's first regulatory director, Cass Sunstein, not only issued a number of major regulatory directives to federal agencies but also launched a "__________" program. Under this program, the administration sought to eliminate several hundred existing federal rules it deemed __________.
look back; obsolete
A fourth mechanism through which contemporary presidents have sought to enhance their power to govern unilaterally is through the use of executive orders and other forms of presidential decrees, including
executive agreements, national security findings and directives, proclamations, reorganization plans, signing statements, and a host of others.
Executive orders have been the vehicles for a number of important government policies, including
the purchase of Louisiana, the annexation of Texas, the emancipation of the slaves, the internment of Japanese Americans, the desegregation of the military, the initiation of affirmative action, and the creation of important federal agencies, among them the EPA and the FDA.
Although ______ and __________________ produce the highest volume of executive orders, such presidential actions also occur frequently in _____________.
wars; national emergencies; peacetime
In the realm of __________ policy, unilateral presidential actions in the form of executive agreements have virtually __________ treaties as the nation's chief foreign policy instruments. Presidential decrees, however, are often used for purely _____________ purposes.
foreign; replaced; domestic;
The use of such __________ is bound by law. If a president issues an executive order, proclamation, directive, or the like, in principle he does so pursuant to the powers ____________ to him by the Constitution or ______________ to him by Congress, usually through a statute. When presidents issue such orders, they generally ________ the constitutional or statutory basis for their actions.
decrees; granted; delegated; state
Where an executive order has no statutory or constitutional basis, the courts have held it to be ______.
The most important voided executive order is _____________________. Here, the Supreme Court ruled that President Truman's seizure of the nation's steel mills during the Korean War had no statutory or constitutional basis and was thus invalid.
Youngstown Co. v. Sawyer (1952)
A number of court decisions have established broad boundaries that leave considerable room for presidential action, such as that Congress might approve presidential action _____________ or, in effect, ratify presidential action through "________________" by not objecting for long periods of time or by continuing to provide ____________ for programs established by executive orders.
after the fact; acquiescence; funding
Further, the courts have indicated that some areas, most notably the realm of _________ policy, are presidential in character, allowing presidents wide latitude to make policy by executive decree.
In June 2012, Obama issued an order designed to ________ the deportation of undocumented immigrants who had come to the United States as ____________. These individuals would become eligible for __________. Immigrant rights groups hailed the order while Republicans criticized the president for ______________ Congress.
halt; children; work permits; circumventing
announcements made by the president when signing bills into law, often presenting the president's interpretation of the law
Occasionally, presidents have used signing statements to point to sections of the law they have deemed ___________ or even _________________, and to instruct executive branch agencies ______ to execute the law.
improper; unconstitutional; how
Ronald Reagan's attorney general, ____________, is generally credited with transforming the signing statement into a routine tool of presidential direct action.
Meese believed that carefully crafted signing statements would provide a basis for action by executive agencies and, perhaps even more important, would become part of the ________________ of a piece of legislation if and when judicial _________________ became necessary. Indeed, to make certain of this, Meese reached an agreement with the ______________________ to include them in its authoritative texts of federal legislation.
history and context; interpretation; West Publishing Company
With the way thus paved, Reagan, followed by George H. W. Bush, Clinton, George W. Bush, and Obama, proceeded to use detailed and artfully designed signing statements—prepared by the _______________________—to reinterpret congressional enactments.
Department of Justice
A final instrument of direct presidential governance is __________________ of statutes with which they disagree. Congress may make the law but presidents __________________________ it.
nonenforcement; implement and enforce
Moreover, as the political scientist Terry Moe has argued, in such battles Congress faces a significant collective action problem:
members are likely to be more sensitive to the substance of a president's actions and its short-term effects on their constituents than to the more general long-term implications of presidential power for the vitality of their institution.
A president's power continues to be limited by Congress, especially by the congressional power of the
____________________, two important indicators of economic health, are subject to macroeconomic conditions that can ___________ be fully within the president's control, such as consumer demand and the productivity of workers.
Unemployment and inflation; never
Louis Fisher, a leading authority on the separation of powers, recently observed that in what are arguably the two most important policy arenas, __________________________, the powers of Congress have been in decline for at least the past ___ years.
national defense and the federal budget; 50
The much-hailed 1973 War Powers Resolution, __________ limiting presidential power, actually allowed the president considerably _________________ authority than what was granted by the Constitution, which seems to require congressional authorization before troops can be deployed for even one day.
far from; more discretionary;
The framers of the Constitution conceived the "_________________" to be Congress's most fundamental prerogative. For more than a century this power was jealously guarded by powerful congressional leaders such as Taft-era House speaker __________________, who saw congressional control of the budget as a fundamental safeguard against "Prussian-style" ______________________________.
power of the purse; "Uncle" Joe Cannon; militarism and autocracy
In 1939, Congress allowed Franklin Delano Roosevelt to take a giant step toward presidential control of the nation's purse strings when it permitted him to bring the ___________________ (BoB) into the newly created EOP.
Bureau of the Budget
Roosevelt and his successors used the BoB (now called the _____) effectively to seize the nation's legislative and budgetary agenda.
In 1974, Congress attempted to respond to Richard Nixon's efforts to further enhance presidential control of spending when it enacted the ______________________ Act, legislation centralizing Congress's own budgetary process and apparently reinforcing congressional power.
Budget and Impoundment Control
Proponents of quick and unilateral presidential action should be _________ what they wish for. They __________ always welcome the action.
careful; may not
The framers feared that executives were often ________ to go to war. Legislatures, they thought, were _____________ to consider the costs and sacrifices entailed by war. Accordingly, the war power was given to Congress to "__________________________."
too ready; more likely; leash the dogs of war
A powerful presidency, a weak Congress, and a partially apathetic electorate make for a _______________ mix.
Americans of the founding generation feared that unchecked presidential power would lead to _________________, a republican form of monarchy without a king.
Which article of the Constitution describes the basic powers of the presidency and the means of selecting presidents?
The Founders chose to select the president through indirect election in order to
make the president responsible to the state and national legislatures.
Which of the following does not require the advice and consent of the Senate?
an executive agreement
What did the Supreme Court rule in United States v. Nixon?
Nixon had to turn his secret White House tapes over to congressional investigators but, in general, presidents have the power of executive privilege.
What are the requirements for overriding a presidential veto?
two-thirds vote in both houses of Congress
When the president issues a rule or regulation that reorganizes or otherwise directs the affairs of the executive branch, such as the directives that established the Executive Office of the President and the Environmental Protection Agency, it is called
an executive order.
Which of the following military and war powers does the Constitution not assign to the president?
the power to declare war
The War Powers Resolution of 1973 was an act passed by Congress that
stipulated military forces must be withdrawn within 60 days in the absence of a specific congressional authorization for their continued deployment.
The Office of Management and Budget is part of
the Executive Office of the President.
Approximately how many people work for agencies within the Executive Office of the President?
1,500 to 2,000
Which of the following statements about vice presidents is not true?
The vice president serves as an honorary member of the Supreme Court.
What are two ways that presidents can expand their power?
using popular appeals and bolstering their control of executive agencies
The Supreme Court case Youngstown Co. v. Sawyer was significant because
it showed that the courts would invalidate executive orders that have no statutory or constitutional basis.
When the president makes an announcement about his interpretation of a congressional enactment that he is signing into law, it is called
a signing statement.
What is the difference between the implied and inherent powers of the presidency?
Implied powers are needed to carry out a president's expressed powers, while inherent powers go beyond implied ones.
Which of the following statements about the president's Cabinet are correct?
The Cabinet consists of the secretaries of the major departments of the federal government.
The Cabinet makes no formal group decisions.
Which aspect of the Executive Office of the President gives the president the most influence over the nation's legislative policy?
Office of Management and Budget
How has the process of selecting the president changed during the history of the United States?
Election has become somewhat more direct by giving over selection of electors to the people.
Which of the following presidents likely had a supportive majority in the House during most or all of their presidency?
regulatory review example
President Obama orders agencies to delete rules that he believes to be obsolete.
executive order example
President Obama issues a decree stopping the deportation of undocumented immigrants.
President Reagan announces his interpretation of a law as he is approving it.
The point of a president "going public" is to better inform the public about what is going on in Washington, D.C.
Increasing the size of the Executive Office of the President, using _____________ to control rule-making agencies, and issuing ______________________ at the time of a bill becoming a law are all examples of presidents using the administrative strategy to increase their power and authority.
regulatory review; signing statements
Which of the following characteristics describe most U.S. presidents to date?
a lawyer before being elected president
from an eastern state
Which of the following statements is not a limit to presidential power?
The public rarely pays attention to the president.
Which of the following characteristics describe the electoral college?
Most states give all of their electoral votes to whichever candidate receives the most popular votes in the state.
The electoral college overrepresents small states.
Which of the following statements about the evolution of the presidential tactic of "going public" is accurate?
Reaching out directly to the people in the nineteenth century was considered uncouth and could damage a president politically.
The vice president plays a role in the legislative process by serving as the presiding officer of the ________, where he or she can ____________________.
Senate; cast a vote in the event of a tie
How does the White House staff differ from the Executive Office of the President?
The White House staff performs work and gives advice that is generally broader and more political in nature.
In which of the following ways can a vice president help a president?
provide electoral support in regions of the country where a presidential candidate is weak
strengthen a presidential candidate in policy areas where they lack experience
run important policy endeavors on behalf of the president
Which presidents most likely faced opposition control of Congress for most of their tenure and which most likely enjoyed same-party control of Congress for most of their tenure?
George W. Bush
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Delegated power examples
set rules concerning fair competition in key economic sectors
adjust duties on manufactured goods
Expressed Power examples
veto acts of Congress
command the nation's armed forces
appoint, remove, and supervise all executive officers, and appoint all federal judges (with Senate approval)
Prior to the 1830s, a party's presidential nominee was decided through the _______ system. This was replaced by the national convention system, in which choices about who would attend the national convention were made at the ________ party level. Later, in the twentieth century, __________ elections were adopted to introduce greater popular selection of presidential candidates.
caucus; state; primary
Executive privilege example
President Obama denies a congressional request for records concerning Operation Fast and Furious.
Presidential emergency power
President Eisenhower sends federal troops into Little Rock, Arkansas, against the wishes of the governor.
President Ford pardons President Nixon for his Watergate-related crimes.
In which of the following ways does the use of signing statements by presidents differ from the use of executive orders?
Executive orders usually create new policies, while signing statements alter a policy already passed by Congress.
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