151 terms

General anatomy and physiology chapter 6

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abductors
muscles that separate the fingers and toes
adductors
muscle at the base of each finger that draws the fingers together
abductor hallucis
muscle of the foot that moves the toes and helps maintain balance while walking and standing
adipose tissue/Subcutaneous tissue/Subcutis tissue
fatty layer found below the dermis and gives smoothness and Contor to the body; contains fats for use as energy, and also acts as a protective cushion for the outer skin
adrenal glands
secrete about 30 steroid hormones and control metabolic processes of the body, including the fight or flight response
anabolism
constructive metabolism; the process of building up larger molecules from smaller ones
anatomy
study of human body structure that can be seen with the naked eye, and what the body is made up of; the science of the structure of organisms or of their parts
anterior tibial artery/Deep peroneal nerve
extends down the front of the leg, behind the muscles. It supplies impulses to these muscles and also to the muscles and skin on top of the foot and adjacent sides of the first and second toes
aorta
the largest artery in the body, located in the heart
arteries
thick walled muscular and flexible tubes that carry oxygenated blood from the heart to the capillaries
atrium
one of the two upper chambers of the heart, through which blood is pumped to the ventricles
autonomic nervous system/ANS
the part of the nervous system that controls the involuntary muscles; regulates the action of the smooth muscles, glands, blood vessels, and heart
axon/axon terminal
the extension of a neuron by which impulses are sent away from the body to other neurons, glands, or muscles
belly of a muscle
middle part of a muscle
bicep
muscle producing the contour of the front and inner side of the upper arm; it lifts the forearm and flexes the elbow
blood
nutritive fluid circulating through the circulatory system (heart, veins, arteries, and capillaries) to supply oxygen and nutrients to cells and tissues, and to remove carbon dioxide and waste from them
blood vascular system
Group of structures (heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries) that distributes the blood throughout the body
body systems
groups of bodily organs acting together to perform one or more functions. The human body is composed of 11 major systems.

circulatory
respiratory
integumentary
digestive
excretory
endocrine
muscular
nervous
lymphatic/immune
skeletal
reproductive
brain
part of the central nervous system contained in the cranium; largest and most complex nerve tissue; control sensation, muscles, gland activity, and the power to think and feel emotions
capillaries
tiny, thin-walled blood vessel that connects the smaller arteries to the veins
cardiac muscle
the involuntary muscle that is the heart. This type of muscle is not found in any other part of the body
carpus
the wrist; flexible joint composed of a group of eight small, irregular bones held together by ligaments
catabolism
the phase of metabolism that involves the breaking down of complex compounds within the cells into smaller ones. This process releases energy that has been stored
cell membrane
cell part that encloses the protoplasm and permits soluble substances to enter and leave the cell
cells
Basic unit of all living things from bacterial two plants and animals, including human beings; minute massive protoplasm capable of performing all of the fundamental functions of life
Central nervous system/CNS
consists of the brain, spinal cord, spinal nerves, and cranial nerves
circulatory system/cardiovascular system/vascular system
System that controls the steady circulation of the blood to the body by means of the heart and blood vessels
common peroneal nerve
a division of the sciatic nerves that extends from behind the knee to wind around the head of the fibula to the front of the leg where divides into two branches
connective tissue
fibrous tissue that binds together, protects, and supports the various parts of the body. Examples of connective tissue or bone, cartilage, ligaments, tendons, fascia, and fat or adipose tissue
cytoplasm
the protoplasm of a cell, except that which is in the nucleus; the watery fluid that cells need for growth, reproduction, and self repair
deltoid
large, triangulum muscle covering the shoulder joint that allows the arm to extend outward and to the side of the body
dentrites
treelike branching of nerve fibers extending from a nerve cell; short nerve fibers that carry impulses toward the cell and receive impulses from other neurons
diaphragm
muscular wall that separates the thorax from the abdominal region and helps control breathing
digestive enzymes
chemicals that change certain types of food into a form that can be used by the body
digestive system
the mouth, stomach, intestines, and salivary and gastric glands that change food into nutrients and waste
Digital nerve
nerve that, with its branches, supplies the fingers and toes
dorsal nerve/dorsal cutaneous nerve
a nerve that extends up from the toes and foot, just under the skin, supplying impulses to toes and foot, as well as the muscles and skin of the leg, where it is called the superficial peroneal nerve of them musculotaneous nerve
dorsalis pedis artery/popliteal artery
divides into two separate arteries known as the anterior tibial on the posterior tibial. The anterior tibial goes to the foot and becomes the dorsalis pedis, which supplies the foot with blood
endocrine glands/ductless glands
organs, such as the thyroid or pituitary glands, that release hormonal secretions directly into the bloodstream
endocrine system
Group of specialized glands that affect the growth, development, sexual activities, and health of the entire body
epithelial tissue
protective covering on body surfaces, such as the skin, mucous membranes, tissue inside of the mouth, the luck lining of the heart, digestive and respiratory organs, and glands
excretory system
Group of organs including the kidneys, liver, skin, large intestine, and the lungs that purify the body by the elimination of waste matter
exhalation
the act of breathing outward, expelling carbon dioxide from the lungs
endocrine glands/duct glands
organs that produce a substance that travels through small tubelike ducts, such as the sudoriferous sweat glands and the sebaceous oil glands
extensors
muscle that straightens the wrist, hand, and fingers to form a straight line
extensor digitorum brevis
muscle of the foot that moves the toes and helps maintain balance while walking and standing
extensor digitorum longus
muscle that bends the foot up and extends the toes
eyes
body organs that control the body's vision
femur
the bone of the leg; a heavy long bone that forms the leg above the knee
fibula
a bone of the legs; the smaller of the two bones that form the leg below the knee. The fibula may be visualized as a bump on the little toe side of the ankle
flexors
extensor muscle of the wrist, involved in flexing the wrist
flexor digitorum brevis
muscle of the foot that moves the toes and helps maintain balance while walking and standing
gastrocnemius
muscle that is attached to the lower rear surface of the heel and pulls the foot down
glands
specialized organ that removes certain constituents from the blood to convert them into new substances
heart
muscular cone shaped organ that keeps the blood moving within the circulatory system
hemoglobin
coloring matter of the blood; a complex iron protein in red blood cells that binds to oxygen
histology/microscopic anatomy
the study of tiny structures found in tissues
hormone
secretion, such as insulin, adrenaline, and estrogen, produced by one of the endocrine glands and carried by the bloodstream or body fluid to another part of the body to stimulate a specific activity
humerus
uppermost and largest bone in the arm, extending from the elbow to the shoulder
inhalation
the breathing in the air
insertion
part of the muscle at the more movable attachment to the skeleton
integumentary system
the skin and it's accessory organs, such as the oil and sweat glands, sensory receptors, hair and nails
interstitial fluids
blood plasma found in the spaces between tissues
intestines
a body organ that, along with the stomach, digests food
joint
the connection between two or more bones of the skeleton. There are two types of joints: movable, such as elbows, knees, and hips; and in movable, such as the pelvis or skull, which allows little or no movement
kidneys
excrete water and waste products
latissimus dorsi
large, flat, triangulum muscle covering the lower back
leukocytes
also known as white blood cells, or white corpustules. Blood cells that perform the function of destroying disease causing microorganisms
liver
removes waste created by digestion
lungs
organs of respiration; spongy tissues composed of microscopic cells in which inhaled eras exchange for carbon dioxide during one breathing cycle
lymph
clear fluid that circulates in the length spaces, lymphatics, of the body; carries waste and impurities away from the cells
lymphatic/immune system
body system made up of lymph, lymph nodes, the thymus gland, the spleen, and lymph vessels. Protects the body from disease by developing immunities and destroying disease causing microorganisms, as well as draining the tissue spaces of excess interstitial fluids to the blood. It carries waste and impurities away from the cells
lymph capillaries
blind end tubes that are the origin of lymphatic vessels
lymph nodes
special structures found inside the lymphatic vessels that filter lymph
median nerve
nerve, with its branches, the supplies the arm and hand
metabolism
Chemical process that takes place in living organisms through which the cells are nourished and carry out their activities
metacarpus
bones of the palm of the hand; parts of the hand containing five bones between the carpus and phalanges
metatarsal
one of three subdivisions of the foot comprised of five bones, which are long and slender, like the metacarpal bones of the hand, which help make up the foot. The other two subdivisions are the tarsal and phalanges. All three subdivisions comprise 26 bones
mitral valve/bicuspid valve
blood flows from the left atrium through the mitral valve into the left ventricle
Motor nerves/efferent nerves
nerves that carry impulses from the brain to the muscles
muscular system
body system that covers, shapes, and supports the skeleton tissue; contracts and moves various parts of the body
muscular tissue
tissue that contracts and moves various parts of the body
myology
study of the nature, structure, function, and diseases of the muscles
nerves
whitish cord made up of bundles of nerve fibers held together by connective tissue through which impulses are transmitted
nerve tissue
tissue that carries messages to and from the brain and controls and coordinates all body functions
nervous system
body system composed of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves; controls and coordinates all other systems inside and outside of the body and makes them work harmoniously and efficiently
neurology
Science of the structure, function, and pathology of the nervous system
neuron
nerve cells; primarily structural unit of the nervous system, consisting of cell body, nucleus, dentrites, and axon
organs
in plants and animals, structures composed of specialized tissues designed to perform specific functions
origin
part of the muscle that does not move; attached to the skeleton and usually part of a skeletal muscle
os
bone
osteology
the study of anatomy, structure, and function of the bones
ovaries
the female glands that function in sexual reproduction, as well as determining female sexual characteristics
pancreas
organ that secretes enzyme producing cells responsible for digesting carbohydrates, proteins, and fats
parathyroid glands
glands that regulate blood calcium and phosphorus levels so that the nervous and muscular systems can function properly
patella
also known as the accessory bone; forms the kneecap joint
pectoralis major/Minor
muscle of the chest that assists the swinging movements of the arm
pericardium
double layered membranous sac enclosing the heart
peripheral nervous system
System of nerves that can next the peripheral (outer) parts of the body to the central nervous system; it has both sensory and motor nerves
peroneus brevis
muscle that originates on the lower side of the fibula. it bends the foot down and out
peroneus longus
muscle the covers the other side of the calf and inverts the foot and turns it outward
phalanges/digits
bones of the fingers or toes (singular: phalanx)
physiology
the study of the functions and activities performed by the body's structures
pineal gland
plays a major role in sexual development, sleep, and metabolism
pituitary gland
the most complex organ of the endocrine system. It affects almost every physiologic process of the body: growth, blood pressure, contractions during childbirth, breast milk production, sex organ functions in both women and men, thyroid gland function, the con version of food it into energy (metabolism)
plasma
the fluid part of the blood in which the red and white blood cells and platelets flow. About 90% water and contains proteins and sugars. The main function of plasma is to carry food and other useful substances to the cells and to take carbon dioxide away from the cells
platelets
much smaller than red blood cells. They contribute to the blood clotting process, which stops bleeding
popliteal artery
divides into two separate arteries known as the anterior tibial on the posterior tibial. The anterior tibial goes to the foot and becomes the dorsalis pedis, which supplies the foot with blood
pronator
muscle that turns the hand inward so that the Palm faces downwards
protoplasm
colorless jelly like substance found inside cells, in which food elements such as protein, fats, carbohydrates, mineral salts, and water are present
pulmonary circulation
blood circulation from heart to lungs to be purified, then back to the heart again
radial artery
artery that supplies blood to the thumb side of the arm and the back of the hand; supplies the muscles of the skin, hands, fingers, wrist, elbow and forearm
radial nerve
with its branches, supplies the thumb side of the arm and the back of the hand
radius
smaller bone in the forearm, lower arm, on the same side as the thumb
red blood cells
blood cells that carry oxygen from the Longs to the body cells and transport carbon dioxide from the cells back to the lungs
reflex
automatic reaction to a stimulus that involves the movement of an impulse from a sensory receptor along the sensory nerve to the spinal cord. A response of impulses sent along a motor neuron to a muscle, causing a reaction, e.g. the click remove all the hand from hot objects. Reflexes do not have to be learned; the are automatic
reproductive system
body system responsible for processes by which plants and animals produce offspring
respiration
actually breathing; the exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the Lungs and within each cell
respiratory system
body system consisting of the lungs and air passages; enables breathing, supplying the body with oxygen. and eliminating carbon dioxide is a waste product
saphenous. nerve
supplies impulses to the skin of the inner side of the leg and foot
sensory nerves/afferent nerves
Carry impulses or messages from the sense organs to the brain, where sensations of touch, cold, heat, site, hearing, taste, smell, pain, and pressure are experienced. Sensory nerve endings called receptors are located close to the surface of the skin.
serratus anterior
muscle of the chest that assists in breathing and raising the arm
skeletal system
physical foundation of the body, comprised of 206 bones that vary in size and shape and are connected by movable and immovable joints
skin
major organ that is the external protective coating that covers the body
soleus
muscle that originates at the upper portion of the fibula and bends the foot down
spinal cord
portion of the central nervous system that originates in the brain, extends down to the lower extremity of the trunk, and is protected by the spinal column
stomach
major body organ that, along with the intestines, digests food
striated muscles/skeletal muscles
this is muscle that is voluntarily or consciously controlled
superficial peroneal nerve/musculo-cutaneousnerve
extends down the leg, just under the skin, supplying impulses to the muscles and the skin of the leg, as well as to the skin and toes on the top of the foot
supinator
muscle of the forearm that rotates the radius outward and the palm upward
sural nerve
supplies impulses to the skin on the outer side and back of the foot and leg
System
comprised of a group of bodily organs acting together to perform one or more functions
Systemic circulation
also known as general circulation; circulation of blood from the heart throughout the body and back again to the heart
talus
also known as the anklebone of the foot; one of three bones that comprise the ankle joint. The other two bones of the tibia and fibula
tarsal
one of the three subdivisions of the foot comprised of seven bones; Talus, calcaneus, navicular, three cuneiform bones, and the cuboid. The other two subdivisions are all the metatarsal on the phalanges. All three subdivisions comprise 26 bones
testes
the mail glands that function sexual reproduction, as well as determining male sexual characteristics
thorax
the chest; elastic, bony cage that serves as a protective framework for the heart, lungs, and other internal organs
thyroid gland
Controls how quickly the body burns energy, (metabolism) makes proteins, and controls how sensitive the body should be to other hormones
tibia
the larger of the two bones that form the leg below the knee. The tibia may be visualized as a bump on the big toe side of the ankle
tibial nerve
a division of the sciatic nerve that passes behind the knee. It subdivides and supplies impulses to the knee, the muscles of the cat, the skin of the leg, and the soul, heel, and underside of the toes
tibialis anterior
muscle the covers the front of the shin. it bends the foot upward and inward
tissue
collection of similar cells that perform a particular function
trapezius
muscle that covers the back of the neck and upper and middle region of the back; rotates and controls swinging movements of the arm
tricep
large muscle that covers the entire back of the upper arm and extends the forearm
tricuspid valve
heart valve which prevents backflow between the right atrium and the right ventricle
ulna
inner and larger bone of the forearm, lower arm, attached to the wrist and located on the side of the little finger
ulnar artery
artery that supplies blood to the muscle of the little finger side of the arm in the palm of the hand
ulnar nerve
nerves, with its branches, that affects the little finger side of the arm in the palm of the hand
valves
structure the temporarily closes the passage or permits blood flow in one direction only
veins
thin-walled blood vessel that is less elastic than an artery; veins contain cuplike valves to prevent backflow and carry blood containing waste products from the can pillories back to the heart and lungs for cleaning and to pick up oxygen
ventricle
one of the two lower chambers of the heart