92 terms

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Collapsed civilizations
Sumer, Easter Island, Maya
Declined civilizations
Rome
Civilizations that were the exception
Egypt, China
Dinosaur
Large-scale society in which resources are being depleted at an exponential rate and yet nothing is done to rectify the problem because (ruling elite are unwilling adapt)
House of cards
Society that has grown to be so large and include so many complex social institutions that it is inherently unstable and prone to collapse
Runaway train
Society whose continuing function depends on constant growth, cannot be sustained
Dubai (accessibility v. mobility)
Accessibility: Getting people where they need to go - shortening commute times. Mobility: Moving vehicles as fast as possible - super highways/freeways. What is Dubai designing for? Accessibility Paradox: Access is increased, but it impedes speed. (more intersections)
Factors in rise of Detroit
Auto industry, ton of jobs. Invented middle class- own home and own car
Factors in fall of Detroit
Henry Ford's assembly line - technology that doesn't require much skill, therefore
created a HUGE demand for an unskilled workforce. Lacking features of a vibrant city life - skilled labor, small enterprises, global
connections. Monopolized the economy - drove small businesses and entrepreneurs out of town. Auto-industry - enabled people to spread out and become less dense (American
dream: car, single family home with a yard). White flight/racist policies
Rationales for downsizing/rightsizing Detroit
Too much sprawl, very big compared to some major cities, consolidate resources and abandon neighborhoods with only a few families. Convert those spots to agrarian urbanism (excellent for providing jobs, fresh and healthy local food, utilizing fallow land, and building community around gardening, etc)
Challenges against downsizing/rightsizing Detroit
Displaces people and agrarian urbanism is not enough to support an urban economy, for a city of 700,000 (or even 1/3 of that population). A city needs surplus production of goods and services to export
Seaside, Florida
Town designed on principles of New Urbanism. Seaside's commercial hub is located at the town centre. The streets are designed in a radiating street pattern with pedestrian alleys and open spaces located throughout the town. There is a mix of uses and residential types throughout the community. Individual housing units in Seaside are required to be different from other buildings, with designs ranging from styles such as Victorian, Neoclassical, Modern, Postmodern, and Deconstructivism.
Malmo, Bo01
Solar cells and solar thermal collectors are present on many of the buildings, other renewable electricity is provided by the districts own wind turbine Boel situated in Norra Hamnen. The original plan envisioned a system of '100 per cent renewable energy', however energy consumption proved to be higher than estimated. Heating and cooling is provided through district heating and waste is disposed of in a number of ways - some houses are fitted with food waste grinders in sinks, others are supplied with paper bags which are dispensed into a vacuum waste disposal unit.
Vauban
All houses are built to a low-energy consumption standard, some buildings are heated by a combined heat and power station burning wood chips, while many of the buildings have solar collectors or photovoltaic cells. Has first housing community world-wide in which all the homes produce a positive energy balance. Transport by foot or bike (transportation network/grid filters out the car)
Hammarby
Design is intentionally semi-urban rather than suburban, with boulevards, somewhat defined and architecturally varied city blocks, and commercial spaces in the ground floor of some buildings. Plenty of quays and walkways along the water
Kronsberg
People live in apartments, condominiums and private townhouses, as well as semi-detached and detached houses. There are two neighbourhood parks and meeting places for all age groups. The front gardens and the courtyards of the individual building blocks are varied and diversified in order to achieve above-average housing quality. There is an extensive infrastructure facilities with schools, kindergartens, shops, community center/church. One of the world's hundred most innovative infrastructure projects
Public policy: Get development right
Make infill and redevelopment more important than suburban development, existing communities should be given higher priority than new ones, and high quality education is essential
Public policy: Get autos under control
Adopt more taxes and regulations, like the gas tax and low-emission vehicle requirements, that will make market prices in line with total costs, because society's ends, not its means, deserve tax dollars
Public policy: Get transit on track
Transportation policy should support public mobility, access, and walkability, should include light-rail systems, buses, etc to build a common identity and regional consciousness, and should allow for walkability
Public policy: Get planning
There should be a regional plan for the metropolitan region and a planning body with authority, and citizens should be given opportunities to be involved in generating and adopting guidelines and plans
Public policy: Get more granny flats and live-work units
Owners should be encouraged to convert spare rooms into accessory units, home offices, rental offices, or other purposes
Public policy: Get funding and taxing right
Tie government funds to local land use and transportation that nurtures compact, affordable, coherent, communities, utilize tax incentives to invest in historic areas, central cities, and mixed-use neighborhoods, and engage in regional revenue sharing
Public policy: Get governance right
Restructure government to empower both the region and the neighborhood, shift more power up to a regional council or new unit of government with regional tax-revenue sharing, attract and retain a well-educated and productive workforce, address racial inequality and segregation, make public schools the cultural centerpiece of the neighborhood, and develop a holistic federal and state approach to urbanism
New urbanism: Transit-oriented development (TOD)
by Calthorpe
-designing for a small, walkable community that has mixed land use, always .25 miles away from a transit center, and is connected to other similar communities
New urbanism: Traditional Neighborhood Development (TND)
Development of a complete neighborhood or town using traditional town planning principles. TND may occur in infill settings and involve adaptive reuse of existing buildings, but often involves all-new construction on previously undeveloped land. To qualify as a TND, a project should include a range of housing types, a network of well-connected streets and blocks, humane public spaces, and have amenities such as stores, schools, and places of worship within walking distance of residences. TND is limited to the scale of neighborhood or town, and should not be confused with New Urbanism, which encompasses all scales of planning and development, from building to region
Everyday urbanism
Less structured, informal. Works between the public and the private sector. Main Idea: Creation of a dialogue between designers and the general public. Takes advantage of the unintended uses of structures. Sub-Categories: Tactical Urbanism (temporary urbanism), Lean Urbanism (working around red tape, finding shortcuts). Examples: Pop-Up cafes, using parking as outdoor seating, temporary Farmer's
markets
Tactical urbanism
Collection of low-cost, temporary changes to the built environment, usually in cities, intended to improve local neighbourhoods and city gathering places
Lean urbanism
Small-scale, incremental community-building that requires fewer resources to incubate and mature
Post urbanism
Post-Structuralist, Avant-Garde, autonomous. Works for the private sector. Main Idea: creation of exciting architecture, accepting the "techno-flow of a global world, both real and virtual". Examples: Rem Koolhaas' Generic City
Financial discounting
Current economic system is discounting future values by only accounting for the short term costs of resources instead of what those resources could mean for future generations
Urban heat island effect: Urban trees
Reduction strategy to lower temperature via shade, also lower need for air conditioning
Urban heat island effect: Albedo effect
Reduction strategy to cool buildings by reflecting solar rays
Combined sewer overflow
combined sewer and stormwater systems can result in CSO: raw sewage overflow into river from stormwater runoff. Polluting local water bodies and severely affecting the water quality standards in the Great Lakes system
CSO events
- the single most important contributor to the failure of Detroit's wastewater infrastructure is stormwater runoff
- between 2010 and 2011, the Detroit Wastewater and Sewerage Department has released an average of 1.8 million gallons of untreated wastewater into Detroit's waterways each year
Methods of mitigating CSO events
Communities may implement low impact development techniques to reduce flows of stormwater into the collection system. This includes: constructing new and renovated streets, parking lots and sidewalks with interlocking stones, permeable paving and pervious concrete, installing green roofs on buildings, installing bioretention systems, also called rain gardens, in landscaped areas. Rainwater harvesting equipment collects runoff from building roofs during wet weather for irrigating landscapes and gardens during dry weather, Graywater collection and use on site reduces sewage discharges at all times
Life of the sidewalk
??
Safety of the sidewalk
Sidewalks, their bordering uses, and their uses, are active participants in the drama of civilization versus barbarism in the city. To keep the city safe is a fundamental task of a city's streets and sidewalks.

1. Clear demarcation between public and private space (unlike high rise public housing projects)
2. Eyes on the street
(lots of large windows and doors close to and opening to the sidewalk, for residents and small business owners - even late-night bar hoppers - to keep eyes on the street 24/7; street lighting)
3. A fairly continuous flow of sidewalk users (Nobody watches an empty street; people like
to watch people.)
Types of problems the city is: simplicity
Two variables
Types of problems the city is: disorganized complexity
Millions of variables
Types of problems the city is: organized complexity
A number of interrelated variables that comprise an organic whole
Rachel Carson
Changed the way we think about nature
- both believed in organized complexity and campaigned against simplicity,statistical averaging and one size fits just didn't cut it
Links between Rachel Carson and Jane Jacobs
look @ notebook
Environment: Positive feedback
Amplification of an effect by its own influence on the process that gives rise to it, as resources are exploited the rate of consuming resources speeds up ex. since ice reflects sunlight and the ocean absorbs it, as more ice melts it leaves more ocean to absorb light, which warms the ocean and will in effect melt more ice
Environment: Albedo
Reflects sunlight back into space (seed clouds to make them whiter/brighter, paint buildings and paving surfaces whiter)
Environment: Mitigation
Efforts to reduce or prevent emission of greenhouse gases ex. burning less coal, using light colored surfaces to reflect solar rays back into space
Environment: Adaptation
Dealing with the effects rather than the causes of climate change
Environment: Amelioration/geoengineering
Adjusting the nature of the planet itself ex. ocean fertilization
Economy: Price
Amount consumers pay for a good or service
Economy: Cost
How much something is actually worth, is not totally represented in the cost of a good
Economy: Externality
A side effect or consequence of an activity that affects other parties without this being reflected in the cost of the goods or services
Economy: Tragedy of the Commons
The depletion of shared resources by individuals who act independently according to self-interest, despite their understanding that everyone needs it
Economy: Financial discounting
Current economic system is discounting future values by only accounting for the short term costs of resources instead of what those resources could mean for future generations
Economy: GDP
Gross domestic product (GDP) is the monetary value of all the finished goods and services produced within a country's borders in a specific time period.
Economy: GPI
Genuine Progress indicator, measures economic transactions in terms of human values not monetary ones
Economy: Jevon's Paradox
Technological progress that increases the efficiency with which a resource is used tends to increase rather than decrease the rate of consumption of that resource
rebound effect: improvements in energy efficiency can lead to more energy consumption
Equity: Gini coefficient/index
Measure of statistical dispersion intended to represent the income distribution of a nation's residents, and is the most commonly used measure of inequality
Equity: Cultural sustainability
??
Equity: "Third place"
Place to be social, not home or work, like a park. Important to preserve these places
Equity: Maslow's Pyramid
Hierarchy of needs; physiological, safety, love, esteem, fulfillment
Equity: Ethicists
Moralists and activists who want to proactively save the environment
Equity: Trendsetters
Prominently live greener lives if it isn't too onerous
Equity: Opportunists
Pragmatic and entrepreneurial about the business opportunities that CC opens up and offers
Equity: Survivalists
Pessimistic enough to circle the wagons for family and friends and even retreat to armed, survivalist compounds
Equity: Apathetics
Ignorant, skeptical or indifferent, but will come along if and when climate gets too hot
Equity: Denialists
Refuse to admit there's a problem and who believe CC is a hoax
Esthetic: Complex order
We constantly process a plethora of information and find pleasure in the process of ordering and distinguishing. Humans enjoy order and complexity as a pair, and like a layered and varied piece of music, the materials and space used in architecture should reflect this desire
Esthetic: Refuge/Prospect
Prospect and refuge, or wide and natural looking spaces and small and cozy spaces, may be juxtaposed in our interiors to accommodate our emotional needs
Esthetic: Enticement
A scene that poses a positive sense of mystery, like a trail that leads us from a dark to a light space, is exciting for humans and urges us to find more information
Esthetic: Peril
The thrill and pleasure from danger allows humans to confront risky spaces in a controlled environment
Esthetic: Biophilic design
Sustainable design strategy that incorporates reconnecting people with the natural environment. Uses natural ingredients/green
Esthetic: Biomorphic design
Design strategy that mimics natural forms and patterns (may not inherently be sustainable)
Esthetic: Biomimicry
Seeks solutions for sustainability in nature, not by replicating the natural forms, but by understanding the rules governing those forms (organism, behavior, ecosystem levels)
Kleiber's law
Metabolic rate scales to 3/4 power of the mass of an organism
Kleiber's law: Directly and inversely applies to cities
Metabolic rate slows down (utilities, etc) but creativity and innovation are superlinear
Environmental paradox of cities
When humans cluster in dense, mixed use cities rather than sprawl, they have big ecological footprints; but they decrease their impact on the global environment more than they increase their impact on the local environment; their ecological footprint per capita is smaller than in low-density patterns of development
Bike share
Innovative transportation program, ideal for short distance point-to-point trips providing users the ability to pick up a bicycle at any self-serve bike-station and return it to any other bike station located within the system's service area (mobilizes low SES on peripheries of cities, health benefits). Can rent for hours at a time, or purchase annual memberships. Caters to everyone.
Bike lanes
Important for cities to have comprehensive
Relationship between bicycling and public transit
Much progress has been made over the
past decade in coordinating cycling with public transport, but the demand for bikeand-ride
far exceeds the supply of facilities in some cities. More funding, in particular,
is needed to provide more secure, sheltered bike parking at rail stations and to
increase bike-carrying capacity on rail vehicles
First law of thermodynamics
Energy cannot be created or destroyed. Important for measuring energy
Second law of thermodynamics
Concentration/quality of energy - the ability to do work. Architects should be thinking about the most efficient way to use energy. Using the appropriate concentration of energy
(exergy). Work = difference in energy concentration between source and environment, NOT the amount of energy a source contains
Trombe wall
South facing. Passive solar building design where a wall is built on the winter sun side of a building with a glass external layer and a high heat capacity internal layer separated by a layer of air. Heat in close to UV spectrum passes through the glass almost unhindered then is absorbed by the wall that then re-radiates in the far infrared spectrum which does not pass back through the glass easily, hence heating the inside of the building. Trombe walls are commonly used to absorb heat during sunlit hours of winter then slowly release the heat over night
Trombe wall diagram
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Architectural typologies and types (kinds)
Deductive, rational, starting with general types. Singular idea that contains variations. Architectural type is permanent: describes the form/shape of the building. Examples: Gas stations, Airports, Parking Garage, Townhouse. Building type is flexible: describes the building program, which can change
Architectural typologies and types (examples)
Greek temple, Renaissance palazzo/villa, Georgian townhouse, Cape Cod, McMansion, etc.
Bus Rapid Transit: Defining characteristics
Public transit system comprised of buses with short headways, longer buses, dedicated bus lanes, pre-purchased tickets, signal prioritization: traffic signals timed to change when a bus approaches. Usually a low-cost capital: cheaper than light rail to implement
Bus Rapid Transit: First system
Curitiba, Brazil
Bus Rapid Transit: Largest system (passengers per day)
China (Guangzhou)
First industrial revolution
1800's - steam, coal, railroads
Second industrial revolution
1900's - oil, electricity, automobiles
Third industrial revolution
Distributed, renewable energy and internet, cell phones. Shift from primarily phones to
internet from 2nd to 3rd revolution
Paul Hawken: optimism v. pessimism
Despite depressing stats on environment, independent grassroots initiatives collectively comprise the largest social movement in human history. Hawken expresses optimism about those who want to save existence
Critical regionalism
- Critical Regionalism (C.R.): about designing from the specific to the general and being rooted in place; inductive and empirical
- regionalism (in architecture) means thinking smaller; the local not the universal
- regionalism (in urban planning) means thinking bigger; the metropolis or megapolis not the n'hood
- C.R. is based on regional (not regionalist) differences, but in a questioning, critical, and cosmopolitan way
- regional: unselfconscious and provincial and parochial
- regionalist: sophisticated, self-conscious regionalism
- reaction to the functionalism, rational sterility, placelessness, and industrial repetition of Modernist design
- a counter-reaction to the sudden flowering of historicist Post Modern design, which was an even stronger reaction to Modernism
- fundamental strategy: mediate the impact of universal civilization with element derived indirectly from the peculiarities of a particular place