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Greek Arts and Archaeology FINAL
Terms in this set (57)
The Acropolis and the Athenian Empire/Delian League
Acropolis is the epitome of what Athens is.
The Delian League formed to liberate Greeks subject to Persian rule and quickly became the Athenian Empire.
After the Persian Wars, Athens emerged as a dominant power in the Aegean. The Athenian democracy left a majority of the population disenfranchised because citizenship was more like a membership in a club. The Acropolis represents wealth and power of Athens.
The Peloponnesian War and Greek Art
The most destructive war the Greeks ever fought because they fought against each other. Pitted Athens against Sparta and ended in crushing defeat for the democracy in Athens.
The Peloponnesian war resulted in a barrage of propagandistic art in Athens. The effects of the way can be seen in four types of artwork: sculpted monuments, religious architecture, military architecture, and coins. An example of a monument is Nike of Paionios. Nike is the goddess of victory, and this sculpture was put out front of the Temple of Zeus at Olympia. She is depicted arriving to give news of battle. Nike celebrates the successful killing of a large number of men. She is made of marble and shows motion by the billowing and drapery of her clothes behind her with the use of chain and modeling lines. An example of architecture is the Temple of Apollo at Bassai. The temple was built by mercenaries and has a frieze of Greeks fighting Amazons. This frieze shows battle in action.
Early Classical Sculpture
Early classical sculpture is diverse, but there is also a general interest in transparent drapery and evocative surfaces. (Ludovisi Throne) Freestanding statues began to engage their beholders in dramatic fashion. Argos was a major center for sculpture, in part due to the work of Polykleitos. No works by him survived, but the Riace Warriors suggest the chief features of his style: restless, heavy-set males, with rippling surfaces that emphasize bones, veins, and muscles under the skin. The poses and facial expressions suggest character.
The temple of Zeus is the major monument of architectural sculpture. The carving style favors large, doughy masses over surface detail. Folds of drapery come in three main varieties: motion lines, modeling lines, and chain lines. Individual pediments present unified compositions with a central deity. There is a new dramatic characterization where the figures show strong emotion.
Greek Art Outside of the Greek Mainland (Italy/Sicily/Turkey)
Unlike earlier Greek art, which consisted predominantly of art of Greece itself, Hellenistic art was more diverse culturally and geographically. Because Hellenistic art arose after the conquests of Alexander the Great, it also included art from the Greek-influenced regions of Alexander's empire.
Motya in Sicily
The Individual and Greek Art (Late Classical and Hellenistic)
Polis institutions weakened in the last classical period, resulting in internal divisions and external threats. Powerful leaders eventually overran the Greek cities. The rulers patronized Greek artists and used Greek cultural forms as a way to assert and legitimize power. For centuries, Greek art had presented individuals as representatives of a community.
Patrons and artists alike preferred individuality, novelty (including ethnicity and ugliness), and artistic inventiveness. Hellenistic art built on the classical concepts, but became more dramatic, with sweeping lines and strong contrasts of light, shadow, and emotion.
Realisitc portraiture came into its own as the representation of individual features becoming newly important. The Olympia Boxer- facial features reveal the subject
During the Hellenisitic period (323-100 BCE) Art became a subject of private enjoyment. Collectors paid top prices for classical masterpieces.
Coins- political power was vesting in individuals, not institutions. The individualized portraiture on coins.
Greek Art and the Coming of Rome
Over the course of the 2nd century, Rome came to dominate much of the Greek world. The conquest was both military and cultural, as countless Greek artworks were shipped to Italy.
Greek life changed dramatically between the death of Alexander the Great and the coming of Rome. The Greek world was larger and more diverse.
Macedonia and Greek Art
Fine metalware became common in Macedon, a sign perhaps of rising wealth at the top levels of Greek society.
Derveni Krater: Served as an ash ur. Has iconography of people in various states of drunkenness. Dionysus is on it.
Macedonian tombs had Doric facades in the front with a vaulted chamber in the back. This type was especially popular far Alexander and attest to the Macedonian's new ground wealth. They provide evidence for ancient painting.
Battle of Himera (480 BCE) Victory Temple in Syracuse.
Built by Theron a tyrant of Akragas.
Temple of Juno
eastern most temple on temple ridge. Do not know who was worshipped there, made out of local sandstone which is not good building material. Has stairs leading up to the roof.
Temple of Concordia
Was turned into a church.
Stairs leading up to the roof, first time we are seeing stairs in a temple. No idea what the roof was used for. Similar to temple of Juno. Standard outside but the inside not so standard.
Temple of Olympian Zeus
In Athens. Not finished.
Theron the Tyrant was building it. Was supposed to be one of the largest Doric temples every built. Said to have been contructed by Carthaginian Slaves. No doorways between the columns. Figures between columns called Telamons and is said to have been modeled off by the slaves as well. A earthquake hit and ruined it.
Paestum town planning
In Italy. 254-64.
Temple of Hera, temple of Athena, and sanctuary of Athena are aligned on their own grid which immediately makes them different and seperated from the town.
The Romans later took over Paestum and getting rid of Greek works that had political symbolism.
Temple of Hera
Two entrances into the naos and adyton. Line of columns up the middle hall marking older architecture and splits the space into two. Probably accommodated ritual processions. You could make a full circle in and out of the temple. Made of limestone.
Tomb of the Diver
A cist tombs in Paestum. This tombs blends two authentic elements from two different cultures.
It was a painted tomb, something that Greeks did not ordinarily do. Suggests that it was made by Etruscans.
On the bottom is image of symposium.
On the top it shows non Greek culture-Etruscans.
Do not know who it was made for but the blending of styles is the result of the interaction between different peoples.
Etruscan Tomb in North Italy
Tomb of hunting and fishing
Charioteer. Sculpture in Sicily that follows Greek sculpting conventions. Showing the body underneath the cloth as well as contraposto. reminds us that stylistic characteristics do not represent the ethnicity of the person being sculpted.
Example from Sicily.
A relief that acted as a fence around a religious offering in the ground.
Shows the birth of Aphrodite. Looks like she is emerging from the ground
Harmony between the visible and non-visible of the female goddess body.
Temple of Apollo at Bassai
420 BCE. Half Ionic. Bold and innovative. Oriented South and North
Engaged columns: stuck to the walls, not free-standing making them only partial columns.
First time to see a frieze in the interior of the temple.
Dedicated by Mercenaries.
Olympia Temple of Zeus
Doric temple with a standard group plan.
East Pediment: Shows the story of Pelops and the chariot race against Poydomayus for the wife of Pelops. Mythical origin of the Olympic Games. In this pediment you have this new interest in age and what happens to the body when it ages. Old Seer- saggy skin, growing bald, and tugging on his beard in worry. Next to him is a young boy who is fiddling with his toe showing the impatience of youth.
Zeus is in the center, King Oinomaos on the left.
Lapiths vs centaurs: centaurs begin drinking mead wine (barbarian behavior). Attempted to rape Lapith women. Lapith men react and centaurs fight back. Distinction between what makes a Greek and what makes a barbarian. Barbarians are emotional and out of control bad guests. While the Greeks are calm and almost emotionless. The women being abducted have faces of calmness as well as the men fighting the centaurs. These parallel the emtionless expression of Dionysus in the pediment.
Metopes: above the entrance to the pronaos and opisthodomus. 12 labors of Herakles. Shows him starting out as a young man and then becoming more confident.
Handing over fruits of his labor to Athena
Figures arranged to create an X. Creates intense movements.
Sculptures made of Ivory and Gold. We're regarded by the Greeks as the supreme masterpieces of the early classical period.
Statue of Cult Zeus
Made by Phedias in Olympis.
The sculpture was completely destroyed, but it was huge and if Zeus stood up he would have taken the roof off. Zeus is carved out of wood and covered with sheets of ivory and gold.
Architect responsible for Parthenon and statue of cult Zeus. He comes to Olympia because he has been run out of Athens for corruption and stealing money. He is tainted by a lot of scandal.
The Argive School
Creates by Polykleitos. New type of carving with emphasis on musculature.
Born by the sea.
Depicted in the Parthenon east pediment with the wet-drapery effect. Very sensual and gives you a sense of what her body looks like.
Were likely a part of the Argive school. Show the same ideas of the body being depicted at rest.
They were found in the sea off of Rome
Weight is only on one leg, making s-curve in your back. Way of showing movement without actual movement.
Worked almost exclusively in bronze and specialized in athletes. He combined the blockiness and timelessness of Kouros with new developments in pose and anatomy. He wrote a book about how to sculpt the ideal male body. Gave specifics of size and details. Tweaking what men look like in art sculptures.
A sculpture of a spear-bearer. Shows contraposto and asymmetry of the male body. This creates a mobile dynamic figure in a static pattern.
Not a temple, fancy bank.
Where the treasury of the Delian League is moved to when they become the Athenian Empire. The largest, most fancy, and impressive religious building in the city. Contained much of Athens imperial wealth. Designed to rival the Temple of Zeus at Olympia.
Created in a ratio of 4:9. Mathematically precise. Doric exterior and ionic interior.
Built entirely of marble.
East Pediment: depicts birth of Athena- comes out completely armed and old from Zeus' head. Takes place at dawn. Show new interest in style called the wet-drapery effect.
West Pediment: Fight between Athena and Poseidon.
Metopes: on exterior of building. Lapiths vs. centaurs. Bodies twisting through space.
Frieze: Runs though the interior (not quite inside) and runs around the exterior of the walls that make up the pronaos, naos, and opisthosomus. The scenes on the frieze represent activities that are part of a grand civic festival. A procession of the sacrifice in honor of Athena's birthday. It shows how the imperial democracy would liked to imagine itself. Most of the citizen appear as horsemen, that is, as elites.
Cult statue of Athena Polias
In the city of Athena. Far more important than the Parthenon. One of the weirdest Greek temples. Ionic building. East porch
Columns have fancy necking and egg and dart molding. The effect is of a richly decorated jewel box.
Coffers: recessed squares set into the roof. They left one out for the Lightning bolt of Zeus.
The Caryatid porch: cannot be accessed from inside. It is its own thing. Meant to mark off the remembrance of the old Athena temple.
Wet drapery look- gives a really good idea of the body under the drapery. Part of the trend of sexifying female and male bodies.
431-404 BCE. The most destructive war the Greeks ever fought because they fought against each other. Pitted Athens against Sparta and ended in crushing defeat for the democracy.
Never completed because of the Peloponnesian war. When the athenians talk about which building they love the most, it is this one.
A monumental entryway to the Acropolis.
Architecture tour de force. The architect had to deal with sloping topography as well as a small entryway. Looks symmetrical to the naked eye, but is in fact not. Used same trick as the Parthenon- create a building of mixed orders (ionic and Doric). Doric exterior and ionic interior.
Or the Temple of Athena Polias. Replacement by old Athena temple. Deals with uneven bedrock. Has engaged columns. Much of how it was built was to maintain symmetry. South porch: arguably the most impressive. Caryatids are a throwback to Koure. Women wearing long draping dresses.
The Temple of Athena Nike
Probably built 420 BCE. Constructed of all marble consisting of a single room with a row of four columns in the front and back. Ionic temple. Has an unusual carved friezes, South frieze depicts a battle between Greeks and Persians. The North and West friezes show combats between Greek armies, could have been incidents from the Peloponnesian war.
The wall added in 407 it's a graphic reminder of the connection between war and sexual violence.
Very popular in the high classical period. The construction of massive theaters throughout the Greek world. Takes place during festivals. Appears to have its main start in Athens. Elite citizens put on the shows and they made a profit while the government was able to give needy citizens free entertainment.
Three main Genres: Tragedy, Comedy, and Satyr plays.
A play was a gift to the god as well as to the audience. People voted on which play was victorious and was a game for prestige and power.
Theatrical drama played with the border between what is real and what is merely an imitation.
Tragic dramas became popular outside of Athens.
Theatre of Thorikos
Weird rectangular seating and Orchestra.
Art imitates life and there is no distinction between the two. Actors and actresses use masks when performing.
Shown in the Pronomos Vase-depicts a satyr plays and plays around with mimesis. Some wearing masks, some not.
The God of theater and ecstasy.
The cat Stele
A cat sits below a birdcage with its head missing. The boy, cat, and slab make up a series of overlapping planes parallel to the front of the stele. The young boy is depicted under the cat while the older male has drapery around his hip and shoulder.
Gravestone of Hegeso
Mistress and maid motif made popular on white-ground lekythoi. The slave girl is holding a jewelry box. Hegeso appears as she did on her wedding night, "a bride to death".
Pottery for Death- White Ground Lekythoi
Immediately after the Peloponnesian war, the state has control over graves. White ground covering which would have rubbed off if used, but were only going into graves.
Common themes include women and servants
After 430, there is the return of grave-markers, which are only Stele.
Displays of the deceased.
Woman are usually depicted preparing their appearance.
An alternative to Kouroi and they aimed to give a relief the 3D impact of a freestanding statue.
First time the artists signature is on a coin.
Merging of artists and the state.
The Nereid Monument
A tomb. Has four friezes- they all show Greek styles of carving with eastern themes.
Nereid's are free-standing sea nymphs. Both Greeks and Persians are present- the mod tic derives from near-eastern art, but the treatment is purely Greek.
Amazon Frieze at the Mausoleum
Amazon women are warriors and do not marry men. Does not show the Amazons as Easterners. They are instead wearing short tunics. It shows decorative drapery in dramatic lunging poses. An Amazon is carrying a double-headed axe which represents a symbol of the Carians who built the temple.
Famous artist of late classical period
Became the favorite sculptor of Alexander the Great.
Was a bronze worker and no originals survived. His sculptors were slimmer, leggier figures with smaller heads.
From Athens. Created the first naked goddes sculpture, Aphrodite of Knidos. Erotic and play off of the new individual relationship with the goddess. E
His male bodies were a bit famine with soft bodies and undeveloped muscles. The bodies had an overall smoothness to them and exaggerates the contraposto.
Alexander the Great
Managed his own image and broke out of the traditional iconographies of power and created a new vision of the dreamy youth.
In the frieze, Greeks are indistinguishable from Macedonians, Persians, and Phoenicians.
Tomb I consisted of a flat roofed chamber. It's walls bore true frescoes and featured abduction of Persephone by Hades.
Freestanding our built tombs.
King Phillp II was in one of the tomb?
Important for its prostas houses as well as its public architecture. Had a temple to Athena, a marketplace, gymnasium, and fortification walls.
Sanctuary of Asclepius
Would come here to be healed. Sleep here and wait until you have a dream with a God telling you how to get better.
Atkhinos Relief: when you were healed, you would make a relief of the god that helped heal you.
Type of technology that gets used in sculpture. More uniform lines and more control over the deep lines.
Folding is drapery in sculptures.
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