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ELA 4-8 test 117 vocabulary from ETS practice test
This is the vocabulary from ETS practice test
Terms in this set (80)
The purposes for speaking orally
Making appropriate word choices
Speaking appropriately for different audiences
The smallest individual sound in a word. Example:
"bit" has three sounds
Breaking a word into parts in oral language development usually refers to hearing parts of the word.
English language learners are students whose native language is not English
A symbol letter or combination of letters that represent a single sound.
The vocabulary hints and suggestions of meaning of a word or visual image
Factors that affect student's word identification skills
A student's home language, vocabulary development, and possible learning disabilities.
The alphabetic principle
Understanding that there are systematic and predictable relationships between written letters and spoken sounds.
Emergent stage of development
Children understand that written language has meaning and gives messages. The students begin to recognize words in the environment or in text. These students may be able to write a few letters, especially in their names, although some of the letters could be reversed, all upper case, or inappropriately capitalized.
Informal reading Inventory
To determine a students independent reading level. An assessment in which a student reads a selected series of texts that gradually increase in difficulty. The teacher records errors and assesses comprehension to determine the levels of reading materials appropriate for the student. The IRI yields three reading levels. Independent, Instructional and Frustration.
These students have mastered reading readiness skills and are beginning to read simple text with some regular degree of success. These readers begin to understand that reading needs to make since.
Study of sounds of the human speech.
a description of how writers actually write; it consists of four stages: (1) Planning (research, brainstorming, organizing); (2) Drafting (writing a rough draft); (3) Editing (self-editing, peer-editing, or teacher editing involves the correction of mistakes in a draft); and (4) Publishing (submitting a piece of writing to a teacher or to a publisher).
Setting, characters, problem, solution
Visual image makers
Style, Elements, Media
Ways to help students become more proficient spellers
Spell words in realistic sentences
Students draw visual image of the words
Teach students the meaning of suffixes, prefixes, and roots
Review phonic skills and meaning
Provide tactile or kinesthetic activities (practice spelling in the air)
Practice a few words at a time
Independent reading level
A reader can read 20 words with 1 error. This reader find there reading relatively easy and can read with 95% accuracy
Knowledge about specific relationships between graphemes and phonemes; that is between letters and sounds.
prefixes, roots, suffixes -- ways to strengthen vocabulary
The ability to recognize, name, and write letters. Knowing of the names and sounds associated with printed letters.
Language rules that govern how words can be combined to form meaningful phrases and sentences
Student practice, application, and feedback
Study of meanings within a text
Determine Main idea
Determine cause and effect
Decide fact or opinion
Visualizations (making mental pictures)
Develop self-monitoring skills (meta-cognition)
A knowledge structure about anything
The student analyzes or evaluates the text or the reading material using critical thinking skills.
An exclusively oral language activity. This refers to the understanding that spoken words are made up of individual sounds called phonemes. Instruction in phonemic awareness should be viewed as an important element of a balanced reading program in the early elementary grades.
The new word is unknown to the student and is directly related to a content area such a s photosynthesis in science and democratic government in social studies
Test taking strategies
Rereading of instructions and answers
Note and mark key words
Concepts associated with printed language, such as directionality (reading left to right and top to bottom), concepts of word or letter, book handling, voice-print matching, and punctuation.
The approach where the teacher models explicitly the strategies and skills of a proficient reader such as the teacher or parent reads aloud while students follow along with individual copies of a book, a class chart, or a big book
A form of modeled writing where the teacher and students compose text together, with both contributing their thoughts and ideas to the process, while the teacher acts as scribe, writing the text as it is composed.
Activities that enhance reading comprehension by establishing purposes for reading, increasing the readers interest in the material, and expanding prior knowledge releveant to the topic. Any of a number of strategies used to connect a reader with a text (i.e. KWL, anticipation guide, prediction, etc.) before reading the text.
Using the words before and after an unknown word to help determine its meaning
Using graphic organizers or mind maps to organize information from written text
A phrase that cannot be translated literally. Many are cliches. such as "It's raining cats and dogs"
Written account of student reading including reflection.
Strategies to enhance study skills
Previewing text to be read
Develop a purpose for what is being read
Teach note taking skills such as Cornell Note taking
Summarize and evaluate information
A type of writing that tells a story. In an essay,it is often used to describe what happened to a person or place over a certain period of time.
Comedy; Farce; Drama; Tragedy; Melodrama; Tragicomedy, Contemporary Realistic Fiction, Historical Fiction, Traditional Lit., Fantasy, Science Fiction, Biography, Autobiography, Memoir, Informational, Poetry
Strategies to enhance a students reading comprehension
Link text to student's life or prior knowledge
Connect related ideas across different text
Engage students in guided and independent reading
Guide students to generate questions and apply knowledge
The ability to read text accurately and quickly. It involves rate, accuracy , intonation and prosody according to state norms
a dramatic presentation of a written work in a script form. Readers read from a "script" and reading parts are divided among the readers; no memorization, costumes, blocking, or special lighting is needed
A collection of student selected artifacts that reveal something about a learner
Factual material that describes and discusses information and tries to persuade. Examples are--biographies, magazines, newspapers, and textbooks
Strategies that help students make sense of text. Activating prior knowledge; predicting or asking questions; visualizing; drawing influences; determining important ideas; synthesizing information; repairing understanding; confirming; using parts of a book; reflecting
Ways to enhance students reading fluency
Have students read and reread from independent level text and use self correction
Changes in pitch, stress, intensity, and duration of sounds during connected speech; the intonation and rhythm of a spoken language
In a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix).
A diagram that uses circles to display elements of different sets. Overlapping circles show common elements.
The literal or dictionary meaning of a word or phrase
When a student uses some conventional spelling but still misspells many irregular words
A theoretical construct to guide students' thinking. The scale was devised to aid readers in determining and evaluating the profundity of authors' themes. The scale consists of five levels or planes: physical, mental, moral, psychological, and d philosophical.
Using the structure of a word to help pronounce it and know its meaning. teaching the Greek and Latin roots, prefixes and suffixes such as anti--ology-- and--un, will help build this skill
IDENTIFYING WORDS, LETTERS, SYLLABLES AND PHONEMES. (sounds)
Word analysis skills
Skills include decoding, blending, structural analysis, and sight word vocabulary
Early fluent readers
Students recognize many words, and can apply phonics, and word analysis skills to figure out unfamiliar words
Students know and use most basic spelling rules and spell words correctly. The often recognize when a word is spelled correctly
Sight word vocabulary
Words that students can quickly & easily identify. students should know these words instantly without hesitation.
Vowel pairs to make one blended sound such as ow--, oi--, ou--- and aw
Purposes for reading
To locate information, to understand a topic, to analyse a topic, to solve a problem, for enjoyment
The ability to self-monitor, observe and think about one's thinking
To visually review a given passage to gather the main idea of the text
When students have some letter awareness. They may spell a lengthy word with just a few letters such as play--pay
When students spell the way they hear the word pronounced such as come--kum, or made--mad
A scoring guide used to evaluate the quality of a student performance; typically, a rubric lists criteria that describe levels of proficiency on a task
Instructional reading level
The level at which a reader can read with 90% accuracy
Frustration Reading Level
The level at which a reader reads at less than 90% accuracy. Text is difficult for readers and errors occur in 1 out of 10 words. This reading is challenging but manageable with teacher support
Predictable stages of writing
Using knowledge about the sound-letter relationship as in phonics to pronounce written words. This is sounding out words
two different consonant letters that appear together and represent a single sound, or phoneme, not usually associated with either letter. ch, ph, sh, th, wh.
understanding of information that isn't explicitly given, but rather implied in a written passage. (make predictions)
When students scribble shapes and sometimes letter-like shapes for spelling words
Helps readers to clarify meaning by restating information in their own words.
Combining the sounds represented by letters to pronounce a word. Example C-R-A-C-K= crack
To visually search for a specific term or definition
Usually refers to stories and can be in any format including novels, dramatic plays, and songs
two vowels, one distinct sound represented (ee, ea, oa)
The study of language not in its structure but in its use. Students must have this skill in order communicate properly
Giving the student a solid background historically or review or structure and extensive help on what they are presently learning. in this way students should be able to build on what they are learning for new skills
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
ELA 4-8 test 117 vocabulary from ETS practice test
English Language Arts and Reading 4-8 (117)
TEXES 117 / ELAR 4-8
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