The idea that the United States should become a world power and conquer/control other territories.
Motivations for U.S. Imperialism
1. Thirst for new markets
2. Desire for military strength
3. Belief in cultural superiority
1. No gov't without consent of governed
2. High cost of defending territories
3. U.S. tradition of isolationism U.S. Interest in Hawaii
1. Hawaii's strategic location
2. Hawaii's military importance
Reasons for Supporting Cuba
1. desire for a military base there
2. Desire to start U.S. empire by controlling Cuba
3. Fear of Spanish colony being so close to U.S.
Causes for the Spanish-American War
1. Sinking of the Maine
2. U.S. Imperialism
3. Yellow Journalism
Open Door Policy
Designed as a way for Americans to further their trade interests.
U.S. wanted equal access to China
U.S. Foreign Policy in the Caribbean
1. Protect U.S. interests in the Caribbean region.
U.S. was able to gain control of the land by encouraging and supporting Panamanian independence.
Goals of Progressivism
1. Protect Social Welfare
2. Regulating unfair business practices
3. Granting voting rights
Not drinking alcohol. The temperance movement peaked with Prohibition
Theodore Roosevelt's domestic policy during his presidency. Tried to regulate abusive business practices and support the working man
Journalists in the 1900s who exposed the corrupt side of life and business practices
Upton Sinclair's The Jungle
The Jungle exposed unsanitary conditions in the meat-packing industry.
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire
Fire at the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory led to building codes requiring fire escapes and an overall safer work environment.
Initiative, Referendum, & Recall
These three initiatives created by the Progressive movement were designed to place more power in the hands of the voters
Federal Reserve System
Woodrow Wilson designed this system to regulate the banking system and money supply.
Woman Suffragists & Protest Strategies
1. Advocate for a constitutional amendment
2. Test the 14th amendment in court
3. Convince state legislatures to allow women to vote.
Prohibition & the 21st Amendment
Primary goal of prohibition was to eliminate the use of alcohol in society. The 21st amendment repealed prohibition.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People was created in 1905 after W.E.B. Du Bois and other African American leaders demanded full political rights and responsibilities.
Election of 1912
Howard Taft was defeated by Democrat Woodrow Wilson because Taft failed to unify the Republican Party
MAIN Causes of WWI
Extreme allegiance to one's mother country Militarism
The belief in possessing a powerful military
Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
This event sparked the first declaration of war in World War I
Causes of U.S. Entry into WWI
1. Economic ties to Allied Powers
2. Sinking of Lusitania
3. Zimmerman Telegram
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
Germany stated they would sink any ship in the Atlantic ocean with the assumption that it is an enemy ship.
Germany attempted to ally themselves with Mexico. Asked for Mexican support of the U.S. declared war. Note was intercepted by the U.S. Telegram convinced the American public to support entrance into WWI.
To combat the threat of German U-Boats, the U.S. traveled in Convoys, which occurred when battleships would escort a cargo ship to Europe to protect it from attack.
Propaganda served several purposes:
1. Recruit soldiers
2. Support the war effort
3. Promote feelings of patriotism.
WWI & Suffrage
The bravery and patriotism shown by women during WWI accelerated the passage and ratification of the 19th Amendment.
Selective Service Act
Law passed that required men to register for military service
Mechanized Warfare in WWI
New technologies such as airplanes and tanks were utilized for the first time during WWI
Most of the fighting during WWI occurred in trenches. Soldiers would dig trenches and launch attacks from within. Soldiers experienced trench foot, disease, and constant bombardment from within the trenches.
Espionage & Sedition Acts
Laws created in response to the Red Scare, also to protect national interests during war. Particularly targeted Union Leaders because they demanded better working conditions for workers, even during the war crisis.
Impact of the Treaty of Versailles on Germany
1. Placed the blame of the war on them
2. Made them pay huge reparations
3. Loss of military
4. Loss of territory.
U.S. Opposition to the League of Nations
U.S. Senators opposed entrance into the League of Nations because of the belief that it would drag the United States in European conflicts.
Mass migration of African Americans from the south to the north in search of better rights and work Red Scare
Period of great fear of immigrants and communists/socialists
Immigration Policies in the 1920s
Quota System was established, allowing only a certain amount of immigrants from each country in
Strong stance against immigration to the United States. Nativists believed that the immigration policies of the 1920s did not thing that it restricted immigration enough
1920s Ku Klux Klan
White supremacist group that blamed national problems on immigrants, disliked political radicals, anti-minority, anti-Jewish
Harding & the "Return to Normalcy"
Harding promised a "return to normalcy" after World War I and used this as his campaign slogan. He would win the presidency based on this promise
A corrupt group of Harding's friends that served in his presidential cabinet.
Ford & the Assembly Line
Ford created the assembly line which increased production because it divided processes into simple tasks
Causes of Urban Sprawl in the 1920s
Urban sprawl occurred in the 1920s partially due to the widespread production and consumption of the automobile. This allowed people to leave cities and establish suburbs.
Consumerism in the 1920s
Americans were fascinated with new consumer products in the 1920s and began overspending and borrowing on credit. Would later lead to causes of the Great Depression
Organized crime increased in the 1920s largely due to the enforcement of prohibition
Changes for Women in the 1920s
The Flapper introduced a new lifestyle for women, the war instituted changes in the workforce for women, and the passing of the 19th amendment gave women the right to vote
The Scopes Trial was a battle over the teaching of evolution and the more traditional creationism story. Flappers
A young woman who broke the norms of society by drinking, smoking, wearing pants, participating in politics, and challenging other traditional values.
A celebration of African American culture in literature and art
African American writer who preached self-respect for African Americans through his writing
Causes of the Great Depression
1. Tariffs on foreign goods
2. The availability of easy credit
3. A crisis in the farm sector Buying on Margin******
The practice of purchasing stock by paying only a percentage of the price and borrowing the rest.
Condition that was created in the Midwest by poor agricultural practices and extreme drought
Hoover's View on Government Intervention
President Hoover opposed direct federal relief to the unemployed because he believed that charities could provide sufficient relief until the economy improved.
Hoovervilles were shantytowns. People expressed their disgust with Hoover by calling them Hoovervilles.
World War I soldiers who demanded their post war bonus during the depression. Hoover responded by forcibly removing these protesters, called the Bonus Army. Hoover suffered a drastic loss of public opinion because of this.
The first major action of President Roosevelt during the depression was to declare a bank holiday and have all banks inspected.
Goals of the New Deal
The overall objective of the New Deal was to lower the unemployment rate.
Securities & Exchange Commission
Commission created by the Roosevelt administration to regulate the stock market
Created to provide security to the older generations of Americans who had retired. Would have the biggest long-term impact on the American economy.
Rise of Dictatorships in Germany
Rise of dictators caused by
1. The Versailles Treaty
2. Economic depression
3. New political ideas Fascism
A type of government that believes that the best form of government is a strong dictatorship
Laws created in Nazi Germany that took citizenship away from Jewish Germans
Adolf Hitler's plan to exterminate all of Europe's Jews
Lend Lease, Cash & Carry, and Destroyers for Bases
Strategies created to assist the Allies in their fight against the rise of fascism in Europe while the United States remained neutral.
Munich Conference & Appeasement
At the Munich Conference, Britain and France supported the policy of appeasement by giving in to Hitler's demands for the Sudetenland.
December 7, 1941 Japan attacks the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor, thrusting America into a two front war with Japan, Germany, and Italy.
Wartime Inflation Policies
Monetary issue in the United States that was controlled by
1. raising and extending the income tax
2. imposing wage and price controls
3. encouraging the purchase of war bonds
Strategy implemented on the homefront that asked citizens to use sparingly items needed for the war effort such as gasoline, food, rubber, metal, and other things.
Women in WWII (Ex: WAAC)
Women served many roles, such as in the Women's Army Auxiliary Corps. In the WAAC, women served as nurses and radio operators.
Due to strong anti-Japanese sentiment during WWII, FDR remove people of Japanese ancestry from their homes and placed them in internment camps.
Korematsu v. U.S.
A Japanese citizen sued on the basis that his civil rights had been infringed upon. The United States Supreme Court declared that individual rights can be restricted to protect national security
Double V Campaign
African American strategy to defeat Hitler's racism abroad as well as racism at home
Zoot Suit Riots
An example of racial tension that existed on the homefront during WWII. The Zoot Suit Riots were a clash between American sailors and Mexican Americans
Operation Overlord (D-Day) was the amphibious assault on Normandy, France that aimed to defeat Nazi Germany's fortress in Europe.
Strategically valuable island in the Pacific due to its close proximity to Japan and the ability of our bombers to launch attacks from there.
Use of the Atomic Bomb
Decision made by President Truman with the goal to end the war and save American lives
The Nuremberg Trials placed leaders of the Axis on trial for their actions in the Holocaust and other events. They set the precedent that individuals may be tried for crimes against humanity.