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Troy Comps Study Guide

Jean Piaget

child cognitive development

Lawrence Kohlberg

moral development

Erik Erikson

psychosocial stages of development

William G. Perry

adolescent/young adult cognitive development

Daniel Levinson

mid-life crisis

Sigmund Freud


Harry Harlow

Rhesus monkey studies with with wire vs. terry cloth mother

Konraz Lorenz


John Bowlby

attachment & bonding

Harry Stack Sullivan

interpersonal theory

Lev Vygotsky

social developmental theory of learning

Gerald Caplan

mental health consultation model

Edward Schein

doctor-patient consultation model

Carl G. Jung

analytic psychology

Alfred Adler

individual psychology

Eric Berne

transactional analysis

Viktor Frankl


Rollo May


Carl R. Rogers


Fritz Perls


William Glasser

reality therapy

Ivan Pavlov

classical conditioning

B.F. Skinner

operant conditioning

Don Meichenbaum

stress innoculation

Aaron Beck

cognitive therapy

Albert Ellis

rational emotive behavioral therapy

Arnold Lazarus

multimodal therapy

Salvador Minuchin

structural family therapy

Virginia Satir

conjoint family therapy

Jay Haley

strategic family therapy

Murray Bowen

family systems therapy

Michael White

constructivist therapy

John B. Watson

father of behaviorism

Abraham Maslow

hierarchy of needs

Steve DeShazer

solution-focused therapy

Frank Parsons

father of guidance

E.G. Williamson

trait-factor approach/Minnesota viewpoint

Nathan Ackerman

psychoanalytic family therapy

Ann Roe

career fields & levels

A.A. Brill

career - ego defense mechanisms (sublimation)

John Holland

career - personality approach (RIASEC)

Donald Super

career - developmental approach (life stage structure, developmental tasks, career patterns, career rainbow)

John O. Crites

career maturity

Leon Festinger

cognitive dissonance

Psychoanalytical Theories

Assume that biological forces drive people and that the individaul must struggle to control or channel them. Believe developmental proceeds in stages, and that personality characteristic developed in childhood remain stable over time.

Sigmund Freud

Believed biological drives (sex and aggression) were the primary motivators of human behavior. He believed that personality developed in psychosexual stages.

Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, Genital

Pleasure focuses around the mouth-birth to 10mths, Pleasure focuses around the anus and the process of elimination-1 to 3 yrs. Pleasure focuses around the genitals-3 to 5 yrs. Dormancy of sexual desires-6 to 12 yrs.

Erik Erikson

A)Erikson stresses the role of social (verses sexual) factors and his stages of development each involve a different pshychosocial crises

Trust vs Mistrust (sensory state infancy)

Birth-2yrs, If feeding is pleasent____develops. Parents are central to social expansion of the child.

Autonomy vs.Shame

2yrs, Growing mastery of motor skills. If not allowed some independence at this stage, child may begin to feel _____and begin doubting own powers. Parents are central expansion of the child.

Initiative vs. Guilt

(Locomotor or genital age)3-5yrs, Awareness begins to extend to other people and things. Curiosity develops. Sharing with others takes place as well as role exploration, which develops______. Parents are central to social exansion of the child.

Industry vs. Inferiority

(School Age) 6yrs to adolescent, Child begins learning values and skills of society. Recognition for accomplishments promotes_____.Peers are central to social expansion of child.

Identity vs. Role confusion

(Puberty and adolescense) 12-18yrs, process of finding out "Who am I" Failure leads to fasle sense of self. Peers are central to social expansion of the child.

Intimacy vs. Isolation

(Young Adulthood) The stage at which meaningful and intimate relationships are developed. Peers are central to social expansion of the young person.

Generativity vs. Stagnation

(Middle Adulthood) The ability to continue producing, reproducing and developing vs. sitting back, not growing and futhering oneself. Partners and intimate friends are central to social expansion.

Integrity vs. Despair

(Older Adulthood) Those who have been successful in solving life's crises reach ego_____. They look back with a sense of achievement as opposed to feeling of______because of an imcomplete life. Mankind is central to social expansion.

Jane Loevinger-Ego Development

Like Erik Erikson theory, believes that stages are important in revealing one's impulsiveness, self-protectiveness, conformity, conscientiousness, and autonomy.

Jane Loevinger-Stages of Ego Development

Presocial, Symbotic, Impulsive, Self-protective, Conformist.

Learning theorists

Believe that human beings are born neither good nor bad. The prominent idea is that people do nothing more than respond to their environment.

Ivan Pavlov(Classical Conditioning) Uncondtional Stimulus

The stimulus that already evokes an uconditional response. Ex. Meat(UCS)-->salivation (UCR).

Conditioned Stimulus

The stimulus is paired with unconditined stimulus in hopes that it will eventually evoke a similar response when presented alone.

Conditioned Stimulus

After several pairings the CS (Bell) will hopefully be able to evoke a conditioned response (salivation) when presented without the UCS(meat).

Systematic Desensitization-Classical

Developed by Joseph Wolpe from the work of Jacobsem (anxiety/fear) (relaxation response). Based upon principles of counterconditioning.

Reactive or Internal Inhibition-Classical

Flooding, anxiety evoking stimulus is presented continuously, leading to fatigue and evetual unlearning.


A stronger pleasant stimulus is paired with a weaker aversive stimulus.

Aversive Conditioning-Classical

An alcoholic is given antabuse, which is a drug that causes nausea when paired with alcohol. This technique is called_____. The idea here is to pair the alcohol with an aversive, somewhat unpleasent stimulus to reduce the satisfaction of drinking it.

Operant Conditioning-B.F.Skinner

A response is learned because of the consequences that follow. The organism has to do something before it can be conditioned.

B.F. Skinner-Primary Reinforcement

Reinforcement satisfies a primary need. Ex. Food.

B.F.Skinner-Secondary Reinforcement

Reinforcement includes reinforcers that have somehow been associated with primary reinforcers in the past so that they acquired reinforcing qualities. Ex. Money

B.F.Skinner-Positive Reinforcement

Think of it as adding something in order to increase a response. For example, adding a treat will increase the response of sitting; adding praise will increase the chances of your child cleaning his or her room.

B.F. Skinner-Negative Reinforcement

Think of this reinforcement as taking something away in order to increase a response. Imagine a teenager who is nagged by his mother to take out the garbage week after week. After complaining to his friends about the nagging, he finally one day performs the task and to his amazement, the nagging stops. The elimination of this negative stimulus is reinforcing and will likely increase the chances that he will take out the garbage next week.


Both positive and negative, increases the likelihood of a response. Punishment decreases the likelihood of a response. The term reinforce means to strengthen, and is used in psychology to refer to anything stimulus which strengthens or increases the probability of a specific response. For example, if you want your dog to sit on command, you may give him a treat every time he sits for you. The dog will eventually come to understand that sitting when told to will result in a treat. This treat is reinforcing because he likes it and will result in him sitting when instructed to do so.

Reinforcement Schedules-Continuous

Reinforcement is presented each time a response is made.

Reinforcement Scheules-Intermttent

Reinforcement is not provided each time a correct response is made. Can be interval or ratio form.


This refers to applying a reinforcer after a variable number of responses. Imagine walking into a casino and heading for the slot machines. After the third coin you put in, you get two back. Two more and you get three back. Another five coins and you receive two more back. How difficult is it to stop playing?

Type of continues schedule -Fixed-ratio

Reinforcement is presented after a set number of correct responses, such as every third correct response. Spanking a child if you have to ask him three times to clean his room is an example. The problem is that the child (or anyone for that matter) will begin to realize that he can get away with two requests before he has to act. Therefore, the behavior does not tend to change until right before the preset number.

Variable Interval

Reinforcing someone after a variable amount of time is the final schedule. If you have a boss who checks your work periodically, you understand the power of this schedule. Because you don't know when the next 'check-up' might come, you have to be working hard at all times in order to be ready.

Type of continues schedule-Fixed-Interval

Reinforcement is presented at the end of every set time period, such as, after every seven minutes, but the response has to be correct. An example might be getting a raise every year and not in between. A major problem with this schedule is that people tend to improve their performance right before the time period expires so as to "look good" when the review comes around.

Operant Techniques

Reffered to as instrumental type learning. The individual learner must first provide a response and then he/she will associate the response with a positive or negative consequence.

B.F.Skinner-Operant Conditioning

The learner will do again what he/she found to be pleasant and will cease behaviors he/she found to be unpleasent. Thus, reinforcement will strengthen and increase the liklihood that those behaviors will be repeated.

Contingency Contracting-Operant Technique

Identify problem, collect data, set goals, apply techniques and methods, measure observable change, reloop if not successful. (Resason for this is realizing that parts of the plan might not work.)

Self-Management-Operant Technique

Client has an extrememly participatory role in his or own therapy. Therapist is a motivator.

Shaping-Operant Technique

Reinforcing new behavior that approximates desired behavior. Therapist looks, waits, and then reinforces.

Biofeedback-Operant Technique

Any technique that uses an instrument to provide immediate feedback on physiological funtions.

Modeling-Operant Techniqe

Exposure of the client to one or more individuals in real life or film who are emitting the behavior that is desired of the client.

Token Economics-Operant Technique

Used for groups, can be traded for other reinforcers and are given or taken away for various behavior. This technique should be used to get clients to begin new behaviors, but should not be used indefinitely. Back up reinforcers can be purchased.

Extinction -Operant Technique

When you remove something in order to decrease a behavior, this is called_______. You are taking something away so that a response is decreased.

Punishment-Operant Technique

Refers to adding something aversive in order to decrease a behavior. The most common example of this is disciplining (e.g. spanking) a child for misbehaving. The reason we do this is because the child begins to associate being punished with the negative behavior. The punishment is not liked and therefore to avoid it, he or she will stop behaving in that manner. Does not eliminate behavior but usually only suppresses it. What is affected is the rate of responding. Often does not work

Aversive Training-Operant Technique

Is to punish certain behavior with the intent the behavior will be eliminated. "Such as time out" which is designed such that the behavior in question is followed by a brief amount of time in isolation or inactivity.

John B. Watson-Father of Behaviorism

Believed that the mind of an infant is a tablua rasa or a "Blank Slate" also believed that human development occured due to the learned associations between stimuli and responses.

John B. Watson-Father of Behaviorism

To him Development was a continual process, rather than one which proceeded in stages. Not concerened with motivation as much as about all behavior. Humans inherit only three basic emotions "Fear, Love, and Rage." Rayner expirement-Little Albert

Joseph Wolphe

Developed systematic desensitization to treat phobias, and fears, believed psychosis was learned.

Joseph Wolphe-Systematic Desensitization

Is a process of developing a fear hierarchy and a set of relaxation exercises.

Josephe Wolphe-Reciprocal Inhibition

Nonadaptive behavior is learned through conditioning and is accompanied by anxiety.

Josephe Wolphe-Basis of Learning

A response is connected to a conditioned stimulus, thus learning. Reinforcement strengthens the connection and reduces drive. No reinforcement means response extinction.

Josephe Wolphe-Pathology

Neurosis is experimentally induced in animals has been known to be generalized to humans. Neurosis is the persistence of nonadaptive behavior that reduces anxiety. (Learned)

Albert Bandura-Social learning theory

By watching the behavior of others, people learn novel responses without having had the opportunity to make the responses themselves.

Albert Bandura

His theory today is called Linear-Interactionist Social-Cognitive Theory and is defined as an interaction of individuals with their perceived meaningful environments.

Behavior-Contorl systems

Stimulus control (autonomic acts, under the control of stimuli or antecedents). Outcome Control (under the control of consequences). Symbolic Control (influnced by internal processes, self-instruction, imagining).

Julian Rotter

Describes his social learning theory as expectancy reinforcement of developed constructs. Learning situations are inextricably fused with needs requiring satisfaction through mediation by other.

Cognitive Theorists

Believe that there is a strong biological basis for development. Children bave a strong need to actively explore their surroundings and adapt to their environment. Their cognitive abilities will largely determine personality development.

Jean Piaget-Constructivism

Structural patterns of thought change as children mature and interact with their environment. Believed there were sequential periods in the growth or maturing of an individual's ability to think, gain knowledge, and develop an awarness of one's self and the environment. Defines and describes development as Adaptation.

a UNIVERSAL, CONSTRUCTIVIST model of development

Piaget's theory of development is best described as...

Jean Piaget-Adaptation

Is the most important process in intellectual functioning as it involves two process. (Assimilation and Accomodation) Schema is a general idea used to organize the world and guide our behavior and expectations

Assimilation and Accomodation

Adaptation entails 2 complementary processess-Assimilation and Accomodation. ______the incorporation of NEW KNOWLEDGE into existing cogntive schemas. _______the MODIFICATION of existing schemas to incorporate new knowledge

Jean Piaget-Accomodation

A child assimilates new information and attempts to fit it to present schemas and if this representation does not fit an _________takes place.


Is a balance between assimilaiton and accommodation. As a result of this resolution the child moves to a higher level of understanding-often abstraction.

2key achievments of Sensorimotor Stage (0-2)

Masters object permanence and 1. Object Permanence: understanding that objects continue to exist even when you can't see them.

Jean Piaget-Preoperational Stage

(2-7yrs) The stage that begins with the emergence of the semiotic function (representational thought) which enables a child to use a symbol, object, gesture or word to stand for something and thereby use language and to think about past and future events. Collective monologue - having separate conversations at the same time. Egocentrism-children consider their own point of view to be the only possible one.

Limations of the pre-operational stage

1. Egocentrim: child's inability to understand that others don't experience world in same way they do

Concrete operations (7-11)

(7-11yrs) Decentration, Reversibility, Conservation, transitivity (mental sorting), hierachical classification (categorize using classes and subclasses) mastery of logical operations. Masters Conservation.

A) Deferred Imitation B) Sensorimotor Stage

The ability to imitate someone or something no longer present is called (A)__________ and occurs during which stage (B)______________

Formal Operational Stage

During this stage of cognitive development, a person is able to think abstractly, relativistically, and hypothetically.

Semiotic Thought

Piagets Preoperational stage begins with the emergence of (A)___________

It is representational thought. It enables a child to use a symbol, object, gesture, or word to stand for something.

What is Semiotic Thought?

Lev Vygotsky

Acknowledged the impact of biology on cognitive development, but placed greater emphasis on cultural factors. Two main terms are function and concepts. Five congitive functions: Language, Thinking, Perception, Attention, and Memory.

Zone of Proximal Development

Is the difference between what the child can achieve with guidance and what he can achieve through individual effort. (ex. the level at which the child can function independently)


A process where the child can move from a point of difficultly in learning to where, with help(teacher), he/she can eventually achieve the task independently.

Language Development/Acquisition-Learning

Emphasizes that language is acquired through listening and imitating those in their environment. Language acquisition is a process of being reinforced for closer and closer approximations to the correct speech.

Nativist-Language Development

Emphasize innate, genetically-determined factors in language learning. This aquisition is through a language acquisition device (LAD). This device has universal features of language, and the child has the capacity to figure out the rules of any language. The child only needs to hear someone speak and they will learn to grasp the meaning.

4-6 regardless of complexity of their native language, True, It is sometime between infancy and puberty

According to the Nativist Approach proposal in language development - studies show that children master the basics of language between the ages of ______and It's_____ that Children from all cultures pass through the same stages of language development. What is critical period for language?

Interactionist-Language Development

Uses both learning and nativist understanding. It is believed certain skills such as perceptual, cognitive, motor, social, and emotional development are vital to language acquisition. Regard language development as the result of a combination of biological and environmental factors.

Noam Chomsky

Proposed infants had a Language Acquisition


Cognitive Development Theory Is associated with what theorist _______. He is known for terms assimilation and accomadation. Also, for establishing Periods of Cognitive development.

Personality Development

Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory and Erik Erikson's Psychosocial Development are both associated with ____ ____

Jerome Bruner Theory-3 modes: Enactive mode, Iconic mode, Symbolic mode

_______motor behavior that is movement of arms, legs, and body muscle in such as fashion to represent some type of object. This mode is mainly physical, Ex. Frustrated child will shake a fist as an attempt to get attention. Ultimate is dance in which all movement is symbolic.

Iconic mode

_______This mode centers on images and represents objects, an important development toward symbols. Child imagines pictures that represent something.

Symbolic mode

The child starts to devise symbols object, words, or gestures that stand for certain people, objects, or actions, but these symbols bear no resemblance to the real thing.


Is understood as higher ordered thinking and can be explained through two different approaches. Developmental and Definitional.

It stresses the impact of social interactions. For instance, in at least some cultures, adults seem to naturally use motherease when speaking to very young children.

What is the Social communications version of the interactionast approach?

When you speak more slowly, use shorter and simpler sentences, exageratte and repeat the ost important words, and frequently ask questions.

What is motherease

Five- Phonology, Morphology, syntax, Semantics, Pragmatics

How many dimensions is language described in? What are they?


Refers to what language sounds like. Are the smallest units of sound in a language


Refers to its rules for word formation. Are the smallest combination of sounds that have a meaning. Prepositions, prefixes, suffixes, and whole words_______.


Refers to the rules of grammar that specify how words are to be combined to form sentences


Specify how language is to be used in different social context. Pragmatics encompass rules related to turn taking, non verbal behaviors and the use of slang.

Refers to the organization of words, phrases, and sentences

What does "surface structure" refer to in language development?

Refers to the underlying meaning of sentences

What does "deep structure" refer to in language development

Chomskys notion of transformational grammar

Speaking involves transforming deep structure (meaning) into surface structure (grammatical sentences), while listening entails transforming a sentence's surface structure into it's deep structure

What are some stages of language acquisition?

Crying, Cooing and Babbling, Echolalia, and Expressive Jargon, Holophasic Speech, Telegraphic speech, vocabulary growth, grammatically correct sentences, metalinguistic awareness.


Beginning at 6-8 weeks, infants produce simple sounds that consist mainly of vowels and that are usually emitted when the infant is happy and contented


At about four months of age______which involves the repetition of simple consonant and vowel sounds (Ex. bi-bi-bi)


Beginning at about 9 months children imitate adult speech sounds and words without an understanding of their meaning

Expressive Jargon

Follows echolalia by vocalizations of sounds that resemble sentences, but that again have no meaning

Holophasic Speech

From 1-2 years children use holophases which ae single words that express whole phrases and sentences

Telegraphic Speech

By 18-24 months children string 2 or more words together to make a sentence

Stranger Anxiety

6-8 months old children become very anxious and fearful in the presence of strangers. It continues to age 2 and then diminishes.

Separation Anxiety

Refers to severe distress that occurs when a child is separated from his or her primary caretaker-Begins 7-8 months of age and peaks in intensity at 14-18 months and then gradually declines


Name 4 patterns of Attachment ?

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