Paper 1 - Core Unit

Terms in this set (265)

Stage 1) in medieval times both CBR and CDR were high.
-The BR was generally a bit higher, resulting in a slow rate of natural increase (35 per 1000)
-while BR remained at relatively stable level, DR was fluctuating (e.g. bubonic plague killed 1/3 of the population)
-these conditions of high fertility and high mortality persisted until about 1740

Stage 2)
-period of rapid urbanisation
-urgent need for improvements in public health
-factory owners realised unhealthy workforce had a huge impact on efficiency
-clean piped water and installation of sewerage systems, personal and domestic cleanliness brought in- diarrhoea diseases and typhus fall rapidly
-life was better in countryside (employment, larger disposable income, more food, wider range of products)
-infant mortality fell from 200 per 1000 in 1770 to 100 per 1000 in 1870
-diseases diminished (e.g. scarlet fever much reduced impact from 18th century to 19th century)
-from 1850 mortality from tuberculosis began to fall
-combination of better nutrition and general improvements in health brought about by 'Public Health Acts of 1848 and 1869'
-medicine discoveries (such as vaccination against small pox)
-stage ended in 1875

Stage 3)
-continued decline of death rate
-downturn in birth rate
-medical science advancements (able to offer specifically effective drugs)
-1906 - increasing attention to maternity, child welfare, school health
-more measures to improve public health
-further gains in nutrition
-decline in fertility (due to more knowledge about contraception)
-desire for smaller families came about (cuz decline in DR is for sure, cost of children was higher in urban areas)

Stage 4)
-BR fell from 30.5/1000 in 1890 to 17/1000 by 1930
-by 1940, BR 14.5/1000 (*influenced by outbreak of war the previous year)
-the higher figures in BR at the end are due to the 'post-war baby boom'
-however by 1980 BR went back down to 14/1000 (remaining very close to that figure ever since)
in 1939 France's government passed the 'Code de la Famille' Which:
-offered financial incentives to mothers who stayed at home to look after children
-subsidised holidays
-banned the sale of contraceptives (this stopped in 1967)
More recent measures to encourage couples to have more children include:
-longer maternity and paternity leave; maternity leave, on near full pay, ranges from 20 weeks for the first child, to 40 weeks or more for the third child
-higher child benefits
-improved tax allowances for larger families until the youngest child reaches 18
-pension scheme for mothers/housewives
-30% reduction on all public transport for 3 child families
-child-orietated policies, for example; provision of creches and day nurseries (state-supported day care centres and nursery schools are available for infants starting at the age of 3 months, with parents paying a sliding scale according to income)
-preferential treatment in the allocation of government housing

Outcomes:
-in 2006 France overtook Ireland to become the highest-fertility nation in the EU (with an average of 2 babies per woman
-France became close to the replacement level of 2.1 children per woman
-almost half of the new arrivals in 2006 were born to unmarried mothers
-French economists argue that although fertility means more expenditure on child-care facilities and education, in the longer term it gives the country a more sustainable age structure
-The central population forecast, based on the stability of fertility and migration at levels during 2006 projected stability in the population aged 60 or under, while the population aged 60 and over will increase as a consequence of the post- second world war baby boom
previous Chinese governments had encouraged people to have a lot of children to increase workforce
-then in the early 1970's a third family planning campaign was introduced called 'Late, Sparse, Few'
-the government was worried about it being too weak
THEN....
-the one child policy was established in 1979
-each couple is allowed only one child
-in urban areas most families have only one child, and the growing middle classes no longer discriminate so much against daughters
-the countryside remains traditionally focused on male heirs
-in most provincial rural areas, couples can have two children without penalties
-restricted to ethnic Han Chinese living in urban areas; citizens living in rural areas and minorities living anywhere in China are not subject to the law
-if a couple is composed of 2 people without siblings, then they may have two children of their own
-policy caused a disdain for female infants: abortion, neglect, abandonment and even infanticide
benefits included;
-increased access to education for all
-childcare and healthcare offered to families that followed this rule
-those who had more than one child didn't receive these benefits and were fined
-policy was resisted in rural areas - traditional to have large families
-in urban areas enforced strictly - but harder to control rural areas
-it is claimed that some woman were forced to have an abortion or were forcibly sterilised
-many girls are either killed or end up homeless because of a preference for boys

Outcomes:
-The most dramatic decrease in the fertility rate, from 5.9 to 2.9, occurred between 1970 and 1979.
-caused the ratio of 114 males for every 100 females in the 0-4 year age group
-CBR has fallen- now 0.7 percent
-in 2000 it was reported that 90% of foetuses aborted in china were female
-gender balance in china has become distorted
-it is thought that men outnumbers women by more than 60 million

The policy stopped on January 1st 2016...
now..
-couples can apply to have a second child is their first child is a girl, or if both parents are themselves only-children
-still has a very large population and new problems are occurring;
-falling birth rate - leading to a rise in the relative number of elderly people
-fewer people of working age to support the growing number of elderly dependents
-in the future china could have an ageing population

Positive effects:
-Slowed down population growth. (the population would be 1.5 billion in 2001 rather than 2005.)
-More physical "space" in country.

Negative Effects:
-4:2:1 dependency ratio. This means the "1" is supporting 6 people, 4 grandparents and 2 parents. This is an extremely heavy burden placed onto the child and may struggle economically.
-High proportions of unmarried men due to a simple answer, there is a lack of women. 118 boys to 100 girls.

Criticisms:
-Strict, harsh penalties on people with more than one child. Naturally, this is extremely unfair on the parents accord. They may have needed the extra child to help them to survive on an economic principal.
-Some "human rights activists" think its not very humane to restrict the number of children per family.
-Japan is a country in Eastern Asia which has an ageing population
-The population is 127 million, more than ¼ of the population is over 60. This could lower more.

Causes of the Ageing Population:
-The life expectancy of Japan is one of the highest in the world, at 82.59 years.
-It has a total fertility rate of only 1.39. (Remember: Replacement rate is 2.1, so this is way less)
-Traditional beliefs that overpopulation disrupts the natural balance.
-High quality education
-Late marriages
-Female emancipation and focus on careers
-High cost of childcare and education

Effects of an Aging Population:
-Japan has the highest proportion of old dependents (about 23%) and the lowest proportion of young dependents (about 13%) in the world.
-Nearly 30% of government funding goes towards social welfare.
-Population will shrink from 127 to 90 million by 2055 if conditions stay the same.
-Strange social phenomena

Possible solutions:
-Immigration (at least 10 million) to prevent future population and economic decline but Japanese are against the idea of multiculturalism.
-Long term care insurance for elderly based on need. This is funded mostly by taxes, and only 10% by users which is affordable.



DIFFERENT SET OF NOTES...
-the number of elderly people who are living alone increased from 0.8 million to over 2.5 million in 2000
-by 2020 over 25% of the Japanese population will be over the age of 65.
-At present it is 15% of the population
there are a number of problems, including:
-inadequate nursing facilities
-depletion of the labour force
-deterioration of the economy
-migration of Japanese industry overseas
-cost of funding pensions and healthcare
^positive impacts:
-the grey economy = the older people spend a lot
^negative impacts:
-older dependency ratio will increase —> more people who are in retirement will have to rely on the slowly diminishing population of people who are in the workforce
-government will be getting less and less taxes since the elderly do not pay as much for taxes, and there will be less of a workforce to pay those taxes
-when these people reach the end of their life, population will decrease dramatically and total fertility rate will drop even lower than it is today (1.4)
-Mexico's economy suffered severe shocks throughout late 1970s and early 1980s
-this weakened the agricultural labour sector - that sector employed many unskilled or semi-skilled workers - so they lost their jobs
-privatisation (public businesses turned into private) of many Mexican industries —> contributed to the loss of state jobs and subsidies
-growing gap between small elite corporations and families that controlled those industries and the poor labour force (majority)
-Mid 1990s- signing of NAFTA (between Mexico, US, and Canada) —> biggest reason for large migration of Mexicans to US, because destroyed large parts of the agricultural sector (unemployed unskilled and semi-skilled workers must migrate)
-severe poverty -in 2013 world bank estimated that 53% of Mexicans live on less that 2 dollars a day
-large gap between rich and poor
-in this time the US had huge economic growth —> so they turned a blind eye to most of the immigrants —> the economic growth was helped by the wave of US cuz they had labourers and unskilled workers to do the dirty jobs
-10-15 million people went into the USA during the 1990s
NOWADAYS-
-some states have legislation of immigration - this is only increasing tensions - but there hasn't been any political parties that have addressed it on a national scale

effects on origin (Mexico):
-less economically active
-less TNCs likely to set up in Mexico
-Ageing population left behind
-less soil erosion and pressure
-less unemployment
-birth rate drops
-migrants send 6 billion home (remittances)


effects on destination (USA):
-overcrowding and 'ghetto' image of cities
-pressure on schools, hospitals
-increased cost for authorities - health care, policing, etc.
-cost for border control
-source of cheap labour
-brings new skills/ideas
-become consumers; create new jobs
-pay 31 billion a year in taxes (if they are legal)
-Large country in Western Africa - population of 174 million.
-Stuffed full of resources.
-Part of the top 10 oil producers in the world
-Under used, fertile land.
-8th highest population in the world, highest population in Africa.
-Fast Growing economy due to 43% of population being youthful.
-In 2003 Nigerians made up the happiest country in the world (GNH)
-Nigeria is considered a country with a distinct "stylish" culture.
-Theres loads of shops and other such amenities that cater towards the rich part of the population.
-Also, the whole culture in Nigeria is great, everyone loves football for a start.
-11,000 years of history of people living in this country.
-Lagos is Nigeria's largest city but not its capital!
-Capital is Abuja with a population of 780,000 people.
-Lagos is also the centre of Economic Activity and houses 15 million people.
-In the South is where the Niger River Delta is found.
-Main City: Port Harcourt.
-High amount of oil reserves down south; therefore more wealth available.

DISPARITIES:
-The whole country is one big disparity, The North and South have drastically different economic situations.

Place of residence:
-Poor quality schools and hospitals in the North
-Percentage of rural population is higher in the North
-Lack of basic amenities in rural areas.
-Regional differences
-47% rural population in Nigeria.
-HDI is 0.471

Land tenure:
-Land = wealth
-Small holdings cannot generate surpluses (people farm at subsistence levels especially)
-Government owns all the land and distributes to all its favorites leaving 24.4 million homeless in all of Nigeria.

Parents education:
-Schooling is free but not always compulsory, trying to focus on getting primary education for everyone (83% total attendance)

Ethnicity:
-510 languages spoken
-3 major groups compete for power
-Hausa Fulani 29% in the North (land locked so no oil)
-Yoruba 21% - South
-Igbo 18% - South
-Christianity vs Islam disputes
-North inhabited by Muslims (Hausa Fulani), they feel marginalized.
-South inhabited by Christians (Igbo, Yoruba) who access to oil fields.
-Certain ethnic groups are confined to certain jobs- limits opportunities for some.

Employment:
-Employment for rural to urban migrants, therefore Lagos is more attractive.
-24% unemployment Nigeria
-Many migrants forced to beg, work odd jobs or become part of the informal sector
-Many children have to work to help their parents make a living - meaning they miss out on an education and they contribute to sweatshop labor
-No unemployment benefit

Income:
-Despite its oil (10th largest world reserve) and large population, Nigeria remains desperately poor.
-70% lives below the poverty line
-Nigeria also has a wealthy and educated elite living in Lagos.
-Located in Africa, in the North West.
-Its population is currently around 3.89 million

-30% Arab (Berber and Bidane/Moors)
-30% Non-Arabized: Haratin, Serer, Soninke, Bambara, Toucouleur, Fula
-40% Mixed

Level of Development:

Water:
-Low.
-Most of the country's agriculture depends on rainfall which is lacking in the predominant desert areas and unpredictable rainfall patterns hugely influence agricultural production from year to year.

HDI ranking:
-In 2007 the HDI ranked Mauritania at #137 out of the 177 country census.

Food Crisis:
-2008 - Malnutrition at 12.6% of the overall population and exceeding 15% in some regions.
-A 2009 food survey shows that 138,000 people in the country are 'severely food insecure' with 246,000 being 'moderately food insecure'.

Rural to Urban Migration:
-More than 60% of the population live in urban areas.

Export Dependency:
-Exports of Mauritania are limited to iron ore and fish.
-Iron accounts for 50% of total exports by value.
-This is risky due to the low market price of iron ore and depletion of oil reserves.
-Fishing is also problematic due to overfishing by foreign boats.

Lack of Port Infrastructure:
-There is no road link between the main port of export, Nouadhibou, and the capital, Nouakchott.
-The development of the West Coast pan-African highway and deepwater port near Nouakchott will decrease the limitations of Nouadhibou.

Oil Poor:
-This is dependant on fluctuating market price for oil imports.
-Discovery of oil off the coast in mid-2001 may solve this problem.

Importation of Food:
-The periodical need to import food is a major obstacle to achieve trade balance.
-High rate of rural to urban migration has increased the number of people dependant on others to produce food.
-Acute periods of drought, especially in the 1970s and 1980s, have increased the importation.
-Mauritania is not always self-sufficient with less expensive imported goods, eg. rice. Livestock rearing accounts for 15% of the GDP with there being more goats than people and more than a million camels.


*Economy of this nation is based on Agriculture. They export fish, copper and iron ore.

Aid from China:T hey gave an aid package to Mauritania -->USD$3.3 million in 2006
-One of the world's largest pipeline system (1,230 km)
-It crosses 3 mountain ranges and over 800 rivers/streams
-91,500 american jobs created by OCS-related development in Alaska
-50% increase in known US oil reserves
-Built between 1974 and 1977 after the 1973 oil crisis caused a sharp rise in oil prices in the US
-Extracting Oil in a fragile environment: cold, isolated, big, mountainous, freeze/thaw, geologically unstable (earthquakes, avalanches)

Construction:
-By-passes for animal crossings, underground pipes (thaw-stable soils), insulated and elevated (thaw-unstable soils), zig-zag above ground for expansion or contraction from temp change and movement from earthquakes, hi-tech pipes and casings to preserve existing temperatures

Oil companies:
-Discovered oil at Prudhoe Bay (1968), constructed pipeline (completed 1977) with $8 billion private money.

Environmental Groups:
-Tried to block pipeline (1970), Contract with Pipeline Company to advise and manage (1990)

Indigenous Americans:
-Lawsuit (1971) over lack of involvement

Government:
-Gave money and land to indigenous Americans in return for control over pipeline. Legislation for indigenous americans (1971) and pollution (1990).

Social Effects:
-Boomtowns: Valdez, Fairbanks, Anchorage.

Economic Effects:
-2000 contractors and subcontractors and 70,000 workers, oil supplied to USA.

Environmental effects:
-"America's last wilderness", Pipeline + road (for construction, operation and maintenance), Exxon Valdez oil spill (1989), disruption to local ecosystems, visual pollution, ground heating for heavy oil.
Nepal:
-Landlocked, full of mountains and valleys, many rivers.
-One of the 20 poorest countries in the world.
-30.4 million overall population
-84% rural population
-80% of economy is supported by agriculture
-10% access to the electricity grid
-2003: BR: 32, DR: 10
-2013: BR: 21.5, DR: 6.7
-33% of population are youthful dependents (below age of 15)
-GDP ppp $1500 USD
-Lowest asean energy use
-29% forest cover
-22L water needed a day
-20% income spent on fuel

Problems with Fuelwood:
-Demand is rapidly increasing (population growth and tourism)
-Few alternatives, especially in rural areas
-Lack of money to build infrastructure
-RAPID deforestation (causes erosion, flooding, loss of habitats, rising river levels)

STRATEGIES:
Strategy 1: Substitute with solar power, briquettes
-Parabolic solar power cookers (completely natural replacing firewood)
Imported German material is expensive.

-Briquette stove made out of forest/industrial/domestic waste
Briquettes just as efficient as fuelwood, inexpensive, also cleaning up waste, easy to use

-Foundation of Sustainable Technology (FoST) initiative:
Designs these technologies
Conducts interactive training workshops


Strategy 2: Substitute with Micro-Hydro in Ghandruk, Nepal
-Small, locally built schemes designed to produce small amounts of energy, by Nepali engineers in the 1970's.

-Practical Action funded, a UK based energy production.

-Ghandruk milling dam

-15 minutes instead of 15 hours grinding for 3 days supply of corn

-0 hours collecting fuelwood
More leisure/study time for women/children
Reduction in fire/smoke so less respiratory diseases

-Diver water from a river that feeds back

-Only a 2m drop is required for subsistence production

-Community owned and operated

-Decentralised, sustainable energy

-Suitable for small areas
• Age: The very young and the very old are most vulnerable to disease, malnourishment and natural disasters and therefore more likely to have a higher incidence of death.
• Sex: In nearly every country, women live longer than men (usually 5-10 years longer). This is not fully understood, but it is believed to be a combination of biological and lifestyle reasons. Women tend to suffer cardiovascular disease later in life and men tend to cause more damage to themselves through drinking and smoking.
• Residence: The location/country that you are born in plays a massive role in your life expectancy. If you are born into a developed, literate and peaceful country e.g. Japan, your life expectancy is going to be high. However, if you are born into a poor, drought and famine-ridden country that is at war e.g. Somalia then your life expectancy is going to be low.
• Occupation: Some jobs are more physically or mentally demanding than others and can therefore affect people's health. A job that keeps people active may prolong health, but if it is active and dangerous like mining, it might shorten life. Some jobs like teaching are said to be stressful and may reduce life expectancy.
• Nourishment: If you have a shortage of food (undernourished) you are more vulnerable to disease. If whole countries suffer from famine a country's death rate may dramatically increase - again it will normally be the old and young affected first. Undernourishment is not the only problem; malnourishment can also increase death rates. This is when people are eating a bad diet that may contain too much salt and/or fat, e.g. obesity epidemic in Europe & North America.
• Accommodation: The quality of your house can play a big factor in your life expectancy. If you live in an informal settlement you are more vulnerable to disease, natural disasters and sometimes crime. However, if you live in a modern structure you will probably enjoy running water, electricity mains and protection from the weather, therefore helping you remain healthy.
• Literacy: Your ability to read and write can have a massive influence on your health and life expectancy. Not only does it give you better job prospects, but also allows you to know how to care for yourself i.e. what to eat and what to do if you are ill.
Most of Indonesia's 200 million people live on Java, Bali, Lombok and Madura, which make up the densely-populated core area. Java has 60% of the country's population in 7% of its area and it is here that the capital, Jakarta, is found. The four main islands all have fertile, volcanic soils that are ideal for intensive, subsistence, and rice cultivation.
Transmigration i.e. the forced movement of people by the government from the densely populated core to the outlying islands, was first started one hundred years ago, in colonial times, by the Dutch authorities and has continued throughout the century. Its main aims have been:
• to encourage a more balanced distribution of population within the country.
• to reduce population pressure in the core by moving people to the peripheral islands.
• to improve living standards for the migrants
Between 1900 and the country's independence in 1949 over half a million people were moved. Despite various governments since then setting quite high targets only a further two million people have been moved.
The scheme offers:
• free transport to the new area.
• free land allocation of two hectares.
• free housing in the new area.
• free equipment, fertilisers etc. and enough food to keep the family going until the first harvest.
There have been several issues associated with transmigration in recent years:
• It is very costly and over £200 million has been loaned by the World Bank so far to help with the scheme. Many people feel that its limited success does not justify this spending. Its impact on Indonesia's population problems has been minimal. In the 1980s, Java's population increased by 18% in spite of out-movements. In 1995 the country's population was growing by 3.2 million per year! This is more than the entire number of people who had moved out from the core in the whole of the transmigration movement. Also, up to 20% of the migrants have since returned home because of problems in the new areas.
• Many people are alarmed at the effects on the environment. Over 120 million hectares of Tropical Rainforest have been felled to create land for the new settlers. Soil erosion and soil exhaustion also occurred once the delicate balance of the Tropical Rainforest ecosystem has been disturbed.
• There have been conflicts between the immigrants and the local residents because:
(i) Traditional farmers are worried that the incomers will take over their area and destroy their way of life. They also complain that the new settlers are given more financial help than they receive.
(ii) Local shifting cultivators have had to move as the newcomers are using their land.
However, transmigration has brought some advantages.
• Improved infrastructure on the peripheral islands, e.g. better roads, more schools and health facilities, although in many areas they are still not adequate for the numbers of people who actually live there.
• People from the core who had no land or jobs now have a future in their new homes.
• Some spontaneous migration to the outer islands has been stimulated. In the future, transmigration policy will probably focus on providing rural infrastructure to attract people and encourage migration and less on large scale organised schemes. It may be better for the country to try to solve the problems linked with its rapid population growth by more family planning programmes, intensifying agricultural production, developing the country's plentiful oil and gas reserves and industries, rather than by organised transmigration.
includes any procedure that alters, harms or removes any part of the female genitalia. It has no medical benefit but an estimated 100-140 million women are living with its consequences.
- Carried out on young girls (between infancy and the age of 15) within communities with no medical care - there are usually no painkillers and equipment is normally unsterilized and may include pieces of glass or razor blades.
- Complications include: severe pain, shock, haemorrhage (bleeding), tetanus or sepsis (bacterial infection), urine retention, open sores in the genital region and injury to nearby genital tissue.
- Long-term consequences include:
o recurrent bladder and urinary tract infections
o cysts
o infertility
o an increased risk of childbirth complications and newborn deaths
o need for later surgeries.
- FGM is more of a cultural practice rather than a religious one - ensures that brides-to-be are virgins and will maintain marital fidelity. Believed to ensure cleanliness and modesty.
- Infringement on females' human rights. Organisations such as WHO campaigning to stop the practice. 2008 - WHO passed a resolution on the elimination of FGM.
- WHO efforts to eliminate female genital mutilation focus on:
• advocacy: developing publications and advocacy tools for international, regional and local efforts to end FGM within a generation;
• research: generating knowledge about the causes and consequences of the practice, how to eliminate it, and how to care for those who have experienced FGM;
• guidance for health systems: developing training materials and guidelines for health professionals to help them treat and counsel women who have undergone procedures.
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