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Psych 526 Exam 3 Lecture 4
Terms in this set (29)
What are options of intermediate sanctions?
Intensive probation supervision
Electronic monitoring (good in theory, but not always in practice)
What are the results of the intermediate approaches?
Increased return to prison or jail for violations of supervision
No decrease in risk to reoffend
Approaches to Risk Assessment
: Professional judgment
Only slightly better than chance
: Actuarial, Static Risk Scales
Consistently outperform clinical judgment
: Risk/Need Scales
LSI-R example of this, includes dynamic
Involves risk intervention based on need (not static risk score)
: Integrate risk, need, responsivity with planned intervention
Risk, Need, Responsivity Model?
Risk--what level of risk present? Who do we provide most intensive treatment to?
Need--what do we treat? what are dynamic risk factors? the importance of typologies
Responsivity--how do we be responsive to indv (adapt treatment to the indv)
what is RNR like in practice?
The story told by forensic psychologists
Who is this person
What is their story
How can we help
What help do they want
What is the best way to help considering their story
Approaches to Risk Assessment history
1st: professional judgement (only slightly better than chance)
2nd: actuarial, static risk scale (consistently outperforms clinical judgement)
3rd: risk/need scales (involves risk intervention based on need, not static risk score)
4th: inegrate risk, need, responsivity with planned intervention
Risk/Need Response for low risk offenders
risk inc sig if harsher sanction
do best on minimal supervision
treatment may raise risk for lowest risk
why? identity formation, labeling, exposure to deviance
you listen to the person's life narrative--provides meaning to your past, current, and future l
Systematic comparison of the self-narratives of inmates
Two types of personal narratives
1) Condemnation Script--continue to offend
2) Generative Script--desisters
What is a generative script
Changing the life story from being bad to good
What can I do that's positive for my life?
How can I help others?
In the core, the person is good and wanting to move forward
Prosocial meaning to lives
Generative script needs continuity between old and new self
"I did bad things, but I was always this good person deep down"
The Narratives of Desisters (generative script)
Differ from active offenders
1. establish a core belief about their true self
2. optimistic belief they control own destiny
3. desire to be productive...Erikson's generative concept..give to next generation
Shame, blake, and "core self"
I'm a good person who did bad things
shame has negative consequences because core sense of being bad
Making good: the importance of identity
Once a man has gone through the impersonal procedures necessary to processing and labeling him as a criminal and a prisoner, about all he his left is his "self" no matter what that self may be, he takes elaborate steps to protect it, to guard it, if it should be taken away from him, even in the name of rehabilitation or treatment, he will have lost everything
What is the conclusion of making good?
reform depends on providing rehabilitation that reinforces the generative script
Scared straight program
Deterrence through "threat" of prison becoming real through exposure
No risk reduction benefit
Research suggest may increase risk (quantiative)
( we also love the idea of bootcamp)
The rituals of redemption meangin
Change is "certified" by others
We see the change and expect it to continue (self-fulfilling prophecy)
What are the traits of the most successful programs?
-follow basic learning principles
-change factors that directly contribute to criminal behavior
-reinforce beh we want to see
-punishment should be prompt and making sure that it teaches something
What are the factors that directly contribute to criminal behavior?
1. criminal thought processes
2. improve education.job skills
3. improve family relationship skills
4. increase prosocial identity
5. address substance abuse
6. address deviant peer associations
Andrews: Risk, Need, Responsivity Principle
Increase intensity based on risk
Too intensive of an intervention (incarceration) for low risk increase risk
Goal of reducing contact with criminal others not met in prison
Responsivity? Match tx strategy with individual need of offender
The argument is that if we are responsive to the needs of the individual—we will be more successful in treatment
What are the basic learning principles Andrews suggests?
-use basic learning principles
-skill acquisition through reinforcement and graduated approximations
-create high quality therapy relationships
What does Andrews say are the specific responsivity factors?
personality (anxious, psychopathic, interpersonal immaturity--teach social skills)
(Andrews & Bonta) The fundamental principles of behavioral influence
(how we motivate and influence)
The Relationship Principle—build relationships
Open, warm, non-judgmental, collaboration, mutual respect
The Structuring Principle
Modeling prosocial behavior
Combined with relationship enhances interpersonal influence
What kind of approach for interviewing can be motivational?
Treatment/Interview style that can increase motivation:
Empathy, warmth, genuineness of provider
Research on switching back and forth in session between confrontational vs reflective/supportive style?
Less client resistance with reflective style
if you get people face--people will resists. confrontation doesn't work
Common theme with changing approaches to offenders away from abusive/punitive approaches
Providers need to avoid acting like offenders
Consistent with social control theory
Vermont Violent Offender Program
Cognitive Distortions Program is a change model based on changing your story, your thoughts, your "errors" in thinking
What are common "errors in thinking"
Victim Stance...poor me
Minimization...not that bad
Superoptimism...can't catch me
All or nothing thinking
I already messed up, I'm just going to keep doing it
What do CBT programs do?
How is Making Good consistent with CBT?
If uncomfortable with objective (not distorted) analysis....then change it
Focus is on the "phenomenology" of the individual
A domestic batterer already knows the therapist doesn't condone their beh--there's no point in the therapist highlighting this
If you can make the batterer uncomfortable and think about it--the self-examinationg can make a difference
when we confront offenders--it doesn't facilitate change for them
the key is self-judgement, not to have others judge
-How do they make decisions in keeping with the self-image they want to maintain
-How do they continue to feel good about themselves while doing bad things
-most offenders have some code of ethics. you want to figure this out for treatment
Final thoughts on Making Good
Change is not stopping crime
Change is generating a new sense of self
Movement away from the "don'ts" to the "do's" in risk management
The Good Lives Model
This GLM approach emphasizes the relationship between risk management & good lives
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