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Hetherington Chapter 23 (Multiple Choice)
Terms in this set (23)
For what four reasons was France considered the most advanced country in Europe during the 18th century?
- large population
- prosperous foreign trade
- center of the Enlightenment
- French culture was widely praised and imitated
For what four reasons was there great unrest in France during the 18th century?
- bad harvests
- high prices
- high taxes
- disturbing questions raised by Enlightenment thinkers
Approximately what fraction/percentage of a French peasant's income was used to pay tithes, dues, and taxes in the 18th century?
What three factors helped to generate a desire for change in France after 1750?
- new ideas about government
- serious economic problems
- indecisive leadership
According to Comte D'Antraigues, who/what group in French society possesses ultimate "sovereignty"?
What situation in 18th century France alarmed merchants, bankers and factory owners and made it almost impossible to conduct business profitably?
heavy burden on taxes
Of what royal family was Marie Antoinette originally a member?
What action in the summer of 1789 signaled the change of power in France and that radical reforms were about to overtake France?
the exit of the royal family from Versailles
What three rights were guaranteed in the "Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen"?
- equal justice
- freedom of speech
- freedom of religion
What actions by the National Assembly against the Catholic Church aroused the opposition of French peasantry and made them opponents of the assembly's reforms?
- church officials began to be elected and paid as state officials
- the church lost its land and political independence
What two major actions did the National Assembly take in September 1791 shortly after convening?
- abolished the monarchy
- declared France a republic
Identify three groups that were internal enemies of the Jacobins.
- peasants who were horrified by the king's execution
- priests who would not accept government control
- rival leaders
Which "enemies of the people" troubled Robespierre the most?
fellow radicals who challenged his leadership
In his capacity as "First Consul" what two steps did Napoleon Bonaparte take to place French economy on solid footing?
- set up an efficient method of tax collection
- established a national banking system
What was the value of the "concordat" that Napoleon signed with the Catholic Church in 1801?
gained Napoleon the support of the organized Church as well as a lot of the people
In what ways was the Napoleonic Code a step backward from the rights granted in the early days of the French Revolution?
it limited liberty and promoted order and authority over individual rights
What two benefits did Napoleon derive from the sale of the Louisiana Territory to the United States in 1803?
- gained money to finance operations in France
- punished the British
What were the two major results of Napoleon's defeat at the Battle of Trafalgar?
- ensured the supremacy of the British navy for the next 100 years
- forced Napoleon to give up his plans of invading Britain
What were three disastrous mistakes that led ultimately to Napoleon's demise? Which was the most disastrous?
- the Continental System
- the Peninsular War
- the Invasion of Russia - most disastrous
What three goals did Metternich have at the Congress of Vienna?
- prevent future aggression by surrounding France with strong countries
- restore a balance of power
- restore Europe's royal families to their thrones
What was the twofold overall result of the four territorial provisions that were made at the Congress of Vienna?
- made the weak countries around France stronger
- enabled the countries of Europe to contain France and prevent it from overpowering weaker nations
What action by the Congress of Vienna was seen as a means to stabilize political relations among nations?
the return of former monarchs to their thrones
The Congress of Vienna was a victory for what political faction?
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