Create an account
organizing and shaping of information during processing, storage, and retrieval of memories
serial position effect
refers to when people are given lists of words to learn and are allowed to recall them in any order, they remember the words at the beginning and the end of the list better than those in the middle of the list
retrieval cues, recognition
relies on a specific prompt to recover the information. Multiple choice tests.
occurs when a prior exposure to a stimulus activates the recovery of related associations. Hearing a phone ring makes you remember to call someone
parallel distributed processing
PDP Memory results from weblike connections among interacting processing units operation simultaneously, rather than sequentially
first memory stage that holds information; relatively large capacity but only lasts a few seconds
Short term memory
STM second memory stage that temporarily stores sensory information and decides whether to send it on to long term memory; capacity is 5-9 items, duration is about 30 seconds
long term memory
LTM Third stage of memory that stores information for long periods of time; capacity is virtually limitless and its duration is relatively permanent
explicit or declarative memory
subsystem within longterm memory that consciously stores facts, information and personal life experiences
a subsystem of explicit memory that stores memories of personally experienced events, a mental diary of a persons life
implicit or nondeclarative memory
subsystem within long-term memory consisting of unconscious procedural skills and simple classically conditioned responses
levels of processing
degree or depth of mental processing occuring when material is initially encountered; determines how well material is later remembered
elaborative rehearsal or deeper level processing
linking new information to previously stored material
serial positioning effect
information at the beginning and at the end of a list is remembered better than material in the middle
prior exposure to a stimulus, facilitates or inhibits the processing of new information, even when no conscious memory of the learning or the storage
encoding specificity principle
retrieval of information is improved when conditions of recovery are similar to the conditions when information was stored
motivated forgetting theory
forgetting information such as appointments or embarrassing remarks on purpose
memories in long term memory (LTM) aren't forgotten they are just momentarily inaccessible. "its on the tip of my tongue."
information from an unreliable source, which was originally discounted, later gains credibility because the source is forgotten
long term potentiation
(LTP) long lasting increase in neural excitability, which may be a biological mechanism for learning memory
Way to improve memory 3
use the encoding specificity principle ( including context, mood congruence, and state-dependent retrieval.)
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