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55 terms

Chapter 7 Memory

Terms for chapter 7 on Memory Password is the name of our instructor, fi you see mistakes or need to add terms.
internal record or representation of some prior event or experience
constructive process
organizing and shaping of information during processing, storage, and retrieval of memories
processing information into memory system
retaining information over time
recovering information from memory
serial position effect
refers to when people are given lists of words to learn and are allowed to recall them in any order, they remember the words at the beginning and the end of the list better than those in the middle of the list
retrieval cues, recognition
relies on a specific prompt to recover the information. Multiple choice tests.
when you have to completely remember previously learned information. Essay exam.
occurs when a prior exposure to a stimulus activates the recovery of related associations. Hearing a phone ring makes you remember to call someone
parallel distributed processing
PDP Memory results from weblike connections among interacting processing units operation simultaneously, rather than sequentially
sensory memory
first memory stage that holds information; relatively large capacity but only lasts a few seconds
Short term memory
STM second memory stage that temporarily stores sensory information and decides whether to send it on to long term memory; capacity is 5-9 items, duration is about 30 seconds
maintenance rehearsal
repeating information over and over to maintain it in short term memory
grouping separate pieces of information into a single unit
long term memory
LTM Third stage of memory that stores information for long periods of time; capacity is virtually limitless and its duration is relatively permanent
explicit or declarative memory
subsystem within longterm memory that consciously stores facts, information and personal life experiences
semantic memory
a subsystem of explicit memory that stores general knowledge, a mental encyclopedia
episodic memory
a subsystem of explicit memory that stores memories of personally experienced events, a mental diary of a persons life
implicit or nondeclarative memory
subsystem within long-term memory consisting of unconscious procedural skills and simple classically conditioned responses
levels of processing
degree or depth of mental processing occuring when material is initially encountered; determines how well material is later remembered
elaborative rehearsal or deeper level processing
linking new information to previously stored material
serial positioning effect
information at the beginning and at the end of a list is remembered better than material in the middle
retrieving an memory using a general cue
retrieving a memory using a specific cue
prior exposure to a stimulus, facilitates or inhibits the processing of new information, even when no conscious memory of the learning or the storage
encoding specificity principle
retrieval of information is improved when conditions of recovery are similar to the conditions when information was stored
learning material a second time, takes less time than the original learning
Hermann Ebbinghaus
introduced study of learning and forgetting in 1885
Five key thoeries of why we forget
decay, interference, motivated forgetting, encoding failure.
memories, like the brain and skills, degrade over time if they go unused.
interference theory
caused by two competing memories,
motivated forgetting theory
forgetting information such as appointments or embarrassing remarks on purpose
encoding failure theory
failure to transfer information from short term to long term memory
retrieval failure
memories in long term memory (LTM) aren't forgotten they are just momentarily inaccessible. "its on the tip of my tongue."
source amnesia
forgetting the source of a memory (source confusion)
sleeper effect
information from an unreliable source, which was originally discounted, later gains credibility because the source is forgotten
distributed practice
practice sessions are interspersed with rest periods
massed practice
time spent learning is grouped into long, unbroken intervals
long term potentiation
(LTP) long lasting increase in neural excitability, which may be a biological mechanism for learning memory
retrograde amnesia
loss of memory for events before a brain injury backward acting amnesia
Alzheimers Disease (AD)
progression mental deterioration characterized by severe memory loss
Mnemonic Device
memory improvement technique based on encoding items in a special way
memory processing
memory is a process of encoding, storing, and retrieval
Three stages of memory
sensory memory, short-term memory, and long term memory
proactive interference
old information interferes with new (interference theory)
retroactive interference
new information interferes with old information (interference theory)
misinformation effect
distorting memory with misleading post event information
Way to improve memory 1
pay attention
Way to improve memory 2
use rehearsal techniques
Way to improve memory 3
use the encoding specificity principle ( including context, mood congruence, and state-dependent retrieval.)
Way to improve memory 4
improve organization
Way to improve memory 5
counteract the serial position effect
Way to improve memory 6
use time management
Way to improve memory 7
employ self monitoring and overlearning
Way to improve memory 8
use mnemonic devices (method of loci, peg-word, acronyms)