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23 terms

Northern Renaissance

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Advances in Science and Technology: Mathematics and Sciences
Renaissance scientists thought mathematics could help them understand the universe, they built on ancient teachings. New symbols were invented, such as; the square root(√) and positive (+) and negative (-) numbers.
Advances in Science and Technology: Mathematics and Sciences (continued)
The advance in math led to advances in other fields. Ex: Engineers used mathematical formulas to make a building stronger. Scientist studied astronomy, and Renaissance scientists learned that the earth moves around the sun.
Heliocentric
The sun is the center.
Geocentric
The earth is in the center.
Advances in Science and Technology: Mathematics and Sciences (continued)
During the Renaissance, the study of history became just as important as the study of religion, it changed the education completely.
Petrarch
Scholar from Italy. First to offer a combination of abstract entities of classical culture and Christian philosophy. "Father of humanism"
The Spread of New Ideas: Paper and Printing
Papermaking spread from China to the Middle East, and then to Europe. European factories started making paper by the 1300s. Paper was cheaper and easier than the processed animal skins people had written on before.
Johann Guttenberg
Invented printing press. In 1456, he printed the Bible in Latin. Later, it was translated into many languages. Now that the Bible is available, people read and got a valued education.
Printing Press
Each piece of metal had a letter on it, it made printing faster and easier.
New Universities
Scholars from Europe went to Italy to learn about humanist ideas and carried these ideas back to their countries. Only men could attend these universities, however, lots of nobles families educated their daughters at home.
The Northern Renaissance
Humanism spread to northern Europe, and it took on a more religious form. These and some other scholars focused on the history of Christianity instead of Greece and Rome.
Christian Humanism
a blend of humanist and religious ideas
Humanist
the study of human actions and their abilities.
Northern Scholars and the Church
They believed that the Church was corrupt and did not teach Jesus' teachings.
Desiderius Erasmus
Dutch scholar who was sincere catholic and wanted to change the Church from inside. He believed that instead of rituals, we should focus on God and the teachings of Jesus.
Northern European Renaissance Art
A more realistic style of painting was used than Italian painters. They painted actual people that did not resemble Greek gods. Many painted scenes in daily life rather than things from the bible.
Albrecht Durer
German painter from Nuremberg. He's famous for his prints, which is a work of art that is reproduced from the original.
Albrecht Durer and da Vinci
They are both considered the greatest of their Renaissance era.
Rembrandt
Dutch painter, considered one of the greatest painters in European art history. Best know for self-portraits and biblical scenes.
Literature beyond Italy
Writers became important because they wrote in their home language, similar to Dante. Some writers outside of Italy wrote about the Renaissance.
Miguel de Cervantes
A spanish author who wrote "Don Quixote". Don Quixote makes fun of the Middle Ages.
William Shakespeare
English writer who wrote "Romeo and Juliet"; "Hamlet"; "King Lear"; and "Othello".
Summary
Development of paper, the printing press and new universities which helped spread the Renaissance beyond Italy. Northern artists and writers altered Renaissance ideas.