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GWSS 357 - Midterm 1
Terms in this set (33)
What does bipotentiality of sex differentiation mean?
1. Outcomes of earlier stages do not necessarily determine the direction of development at subsequent stages
2. Raw materials to develop in either direction are available at each stage
Where are primordial germ cells produced and where do they typically migrate to?
-primordial germ cells are produced in the yolk sac; they typically migrate to the undifferentiated gonads before sex differentiation of the ovaries can start; testes can develop w/o the migration
the PGCs are the earliest form of all the ova a female will ever possess
What must occur for the undifferentiated gonads to develop into testes?
-For the undifferentiated gonads to develop into testes, there must be:
1.) the presence of a functional Y chromosome and
2.) H-Y antigen (stimulates the medulla of undifferentiated gonads)
What three things must be present for male internal genitalia to develop?
-Mullerian Inhibiting Factor
all 3 substances typically produced by newly-formed testes
What structures make up the internal genitalia (internal reproductive plumbing) of males?
-ejaculatory ducts and tubes
What structures make up the internal genitalia (internal reproductive plumbing) of females?
What factor(s) must be met for male external genitalia to develop?
-have a source of androgens (typically the testes)
-have receptors that recognize the presence of androgen
Name the three undifferentiated structures of external genitalia and what they form with differentiation in MALES.
-genital tubercle --> penis
-labio-scrotal swelling --> scrotal sac or scrotum
-uro-gential fold --> urethra
Name the three undifferentiated structures of external genitalia and what they form with differentiation in FEMALES.
-gential tubercle --> clitoris
-labio-scrotal swelling --> labia majora
-uro-gential fold --> labia minora
What is the hormone producing site prior to ovulation?
Graafian or ovarian follicle
Name the four things that are released at ovulation.
1. Follicular fluid
2. The ovum
3. Corona radiata
What would happen if the sticky cumulus was not produced?
1. The cilia of the fimbria will have a hard time getting the ovum into the lumen of the oviducts
What occurs in the proliferative phase in terms of the uterus?
-endometrial cells increase in size and number
-*note: the proliferative phase runs from the end of menses to ovulation NOT from Day 1 to ovulation
What occurs during menses in terms of the uterus?
-endometrium sloughs off and is eliminated during menstruation
What occurs in the secretory phase in terms of the uterus?
endometrial cells fill with fats and glycogen
Where does fertilization usually occur?
-fertilization occurs at the ampulla-isthmus junction
What is an ectopic pregnancy?
an ectopic pregnancy is any pregnancy in which implantation and growth of the embryo occurs anywhere except the upper 2/3 of the uterus
Where does vagina lubrication related to sexual excitement come from?
Comes from interstitial fluid forced from between cells of the vaginal lining when blood vessels in the region enlarge by engorging with blood during sexual excitement
What is the mons pubis?
-mound of fat and connective tissue on the pubic bone (covered with hair after puberty, marks the front of the vulva)
What are the Bulbs of the Vestibule?
1. Specialized erectile tissue located in the labia majora that engorge with blood in sexual excitement
What are the structures within the breast in which milk is stored momentarily before letdown?
What are the reproductive actions of estrogen?
1. Proliferation of the endometrium during the follicular phase of the monthly cycle
2. Build up of mammary tissue in the breast during the luteal phase and during pregnancy
Addition of muscle cells to the uterus during pregnancy
What are the non-reproductive actions of estrogen?
1. Decreases fat storage
2. Increases general activity level
3. Decreases food intake
4. Softens skin and maintains skin resilience
5. Increases bone development and retains calcium in bones
6. Maintains stability of blood pressure
What are the reproductive actions of progesterone?
1. Increases fats and glycogens in endometrial cells
2. Increase mammary gland development
Inhibits coordinated contractions of the uterus
What are the non-reproductive actions of progesterone?
a) reverses estrogens suppression of fat storage
b) Increases food intake and appetite
c) Decreases coordinated contractions of smooth muscle throughout the body
d) Maintains stability of blood pressure
e) Increases sleepiness
How are hormones transported to the posterior pituitary?
-hormones are transported to the posterior pituitary through terminals of axons from cells in the periventricular and supraoptic hypothalamus
What is the tissue that connects the hypothalamus to the pituitary?
-the tissue that connects the hypothalamus to the pituitary gland is called the infundibulum
What are the two hypothalamic nuclei that produce hormones released by the posterior pituitary?
1. Paraventricular nucleus
2. Supraoptic nucleus
What hormone does the supraoptic nucleus produce?
-the supraoptic nucleus produces mostly Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) also called Vasopressin
What are the two things that oxytocin does?
-oxytocin stimulates contractions of the uterus
-tends and befriends; emotional attachment to others (mother: child; pair bonding)
Explain how hormones produced in the hypothalamus are released by the posterior pituitary.
Cell bodies in the hypothalamus (specifically the paraventricular nucleus and the supraoptic nucleus) produce the hormone (oxytocin and ADH/ Vasopressin), they leave the cell bodies, travel down the cell axons through the infindibulum and then terminate in the posterior pituitary where those hormones are released into the pituitary and then into the blood stream where they act on their target tissue
What is the median eminence?
-nucleus at the base of the hypothalamus where Releasing Hormones enter the hypothalamo-hypophysial portal system
What is the hypothalamo-hypophysial portal system?
-specialized blood vessel system which transports Releasing Hormones through the infindibulum from the Median Eminence to the Anterior Pituitary
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