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HHSAPEuro - Unit #1
Terms in this set (54)
(1304-1374)was an italian scholar, poet, humanistnamed the "father of humanism"first to develop the idea of the "dark ages"
described the ideal gentleman of the age, adept in all areas, social, intellectual, physical. Author of The Courtier
Writes a document on how political leaders should act and rules to follow and how a prince should behave. Wrote The Prince. "Better to be feared then loved" "The ends justify the means"
-Wrote More's Utopia. First utopian model of a society ever, humanist
-Late 1400s-Early 1500s
-His utopia novel was revolutionary to many people and was the first pioneer of a type of social structure
Dutch Humanist, Priest and scholar. *Wrote "Praise of Folly" a satire. Father of Northern Humanism "forerunner of reformation" because he wanted to do away with some church positions and indulgences. (1469-1536)
Gutneberg's Press, German, Helped spread information during the reformation period, Invention circa 1435
Pope Julius II
Great ambitions for the church and Rome; used art and artists as tools in his goal to restore papal authority over Christendom. Commissioned important works from Bramante, Michelangelo and Raphael. (r. 1503-1513)
Leonardo da Vinci
-Italian painter, sculptor, mathmetician, engineer, and overall perfect description of a Rennaisance man
-Painted the Mona Lisa, Last Supper, Vitruvian Man, and is responsible for the inspiration of many engineering feats to present day
-Born in Italy (1475)
-Specialized in sculpting and architecture
-Best known for sculpting David
-The architect of the dome of Saint Peter's -Basilica
-Painted the Sistine Chapel
Time: 1386-1466 -Imbued with classical ideals but obsessed with realism- The Feast of Herod, David, Gattamelata - Italian Ren Artist
-1500-1558-king of the holy roman empire -- king of spain-forced to seek peace with the lutheran princes that were trying to get their own power
German monk; Johan Tetzel infuriates him; three themes: 1. salvation by faith alone 2. Bible is the only authority 3. priesthood of all believers (95 Theses) Grows into the Primary Reformation religion. Lutheranism
1491-1547 King of England who broke from the Catholic Church and thereafter declared himself, in the Act of Supremacy, the English sovereign and the head of the Protestant church in England (later known as the Anglican Church) Developed England into a World Power.
Daughter of Henry VIII and Half Sister of Mary Tudor. Best known as the most successful queen of England in history. Developed colonies, promoted religious toleration and gave rise to an era of culture, literature, and political stability. Elizabethan Era (to 1603)
John Calvin was an influential French theologian and pastor during the Protestant Reformation. Believed in Predestination. He was a principal figure in the development of the system of Christian theology later called Calvinism. 1509-64
Ignatius of Loyola
1441-1556Religious leader in the counter- reformation, created the Society of Jesus aka. Jesuits. Their mission was to go outside of Europe and covert more people to Catholicism.
The Huguenots were a groups of French Protestants that lived from about 1560 to 1629. Protestantism was introduced into France between 1520 and 1523, and the principles were accepted by many members of the nobility, the intellectual classes, and the middle class. At first the new religious group was royally protected, but toward the end of the reign of King Francis I they were persecuted. Nevertheless, they continued to grow.
A political dynasty, banking family and later royal house that first began to gather prominence under Cosimo de' Medici in the Republic of Florence during the late 14th Cent.Cosimo de Medici, Florence prospered giving birth to literature, education, and more.
Pope Leo X
He was the Pope at the time Martin Luther was most powerful. He was a descendant of Cosimo de Medici and he gained his power through family connections. Spent wildly on Art. Know as one of the Renaissance Popes
1348-1517Rebirth,RenewalTransition from the medieval period. Cultural and artistic change. Centered in Florence, eventually spread over most of Western and Northern Europe.
An intellectual movement that focused on human potential and achievement. Became prevalent during the Renaissance. Secular in the South, Christian in the North.
1513 Niccolo Machiavelli, book that marks shift in Renaissance humanism from civic ideal to princely ideal. Princely ideal focuses on qualities and strategies necessary for attaining and holding social/political power.
-this was a book by Thomas More which portrayed a fictional island and the life of people on this island-1500's-this is where the word utopia comes from and this book caused people to think about alternative ways of life
The Praise of the Folly
-this is an essay written by erasmus-1500s-it is considered one of the factors that helped to cause the reformation, it did this through talking about some of the corrupt practices of the church
-Posted by Martin Luther on the door of the Wittenburg Church
-arguments written against corrupt Church practices. Marks beginning of Reformation
Diet of Worms
(Jan. 28-May 25, 1521) A trial held by the Roman Catholic Church questioning Luther of the authorship of his 95 theses and whether he stood by the beliefs he wrote. The trial held Luther guilty of heresy, an outlaw, and he was excommunicated. Diet headed by Charles V Holy Roman Empire
Peace of Augsburg
-Signed in 1555, allowed each German prince the right to decide if his state would be Protestant or Catholic-Religious -Ended Charles V vision of a Catholic Europe
-Henry VIII wanted a divorce, pope wouldn't grant it, Henry severed relationship with Roman church, Henry makes self Anglican leader (english pope)
-during Henry's reign the English church changed little
-Anglican Church became the Official Church of England
Council of Trent
1545-1563Re-Defined the Catholic
Reformation. Response to the Protestant
Reformation. Part of the Counter Reformation
Edit of Nantes
The declaration of religious toleration- 1598Allowed Huguenots:
-to live in peace in france
-set up their own houses of worship in some cities
Henry IV declared. End of French Wars of Religion
The exchange of goods, ideas, and diseases across the Atlantic Ocean between Europe and the Americas
Mercantilism- An economic doctrine that flourished in Europe from the 16 th to 18 th century. Mercantilists held that a nations wealth consisted primarily in the amount gold and silver in it's treasury.
Prince Henry (Henry the Navigator)
-Invested in technology to Improve
-Sea Exploration acquiring new trade opportunities for Portugal
Genoese captain in service of king and queen of Castile and Aragon; successfully sailed to New World and returned in 1492. Opened North America to European Exploration.
Ferdinand and Isabella
A king and queen of Spain in the late fifteenth and early 16th century. They united their country and sponsored the exploration of the New World by Christopher Columbus.
Famous German Painter, worked for Henry VIII, very realistic, known for portraits, Part of Northern Renaissance Art Movement
-A Flemish Renaissance Painter
-Painted landscapes, scenery, and sometimes people. Combined Italian Renaissance technique with artistic traditions to paint everyday life scenes. Vibrant colors.
Jan Van Eyck
15th Century Dutch painter famous for use of oil paint The exquisite detail in the paintings have been liked to photography Most famous work is Arnolfini portrait in which, in the painting, he appears as a witness to the betrothal
"the Supreme Poet"(1265-1321)major Italian poetwrote "Divine Comedy" considered to be the best literary work in Italian ever
Italian painter from Florence, known for "The Birth of Venus" and "Primavera"
A German printmaker, painter, and theorist. He is regarded as the greatest artist of the Northern Renaissance. His watercolors make him one of the first European landscape artists, and his woodcuts revolutionize that medium.
Jakob Fugger and the Fuggers
-1459-1525-family of wealthy merchants- wealthy family on Southern Central Europe that profited from huge trading nextwork
-Most famous writer of the Elizabethan Age- Greatest playwright of all time-Globe Theater- Plays examine human flaws-Macbeth, Hamlet, Othello, Romeo and Juliet, King Lear, A midsummers night dream and the taming of the shrew
(c.1372-1415) preached agains the abuses in the church and challenged some of the Church's doctrines. From Bohemia. Eastern Europe
Was an English Scholastic philosopher, theologian, lay preacher, translator, and. His followers were known as Lollards. A Pre-Reformation reformer.
Becomes Queen in 1553. Being a devout Catholic, she makes Catholicism the national religion again. She is called "bloody mary" for her violent acts against Anglicanism.
Sir Francis Drake
-Sir Francis Drake was a sea captain, privateer, navigator, and a politician during the reign of Elizabeth I. Technically a pirate. He raided the Spanish bringing back tons of Spanish gold.
Sir Walter Raleigh
-sent several expeditions to America
-spent a fortune trying to establish an English colony in what is now the state of North Carolina
-sent expedition to Roanoke, twice.
The doctrine, usually associated with Calvinism, that each person's salvation or damnation has been determined by God and that one can do nothing to change it.
Selling of church offices to collect taxes and fees and the profits from land under the officeholder's control. Clergy who bought their positions provided little spiritual guidance.
In 1525 the demand of peasants that believe in Luther to be raised in the German Peasant war.
-promoted by church beginning in 1484- brought back supernatural approach to mental illness; many executed were mentally ill- Accepted as authority by Roman Catholics & Protestants
Treaty of Tordasillas
divided the newly discovered lands outside Europe between Spain and Portugal along a meridian 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde islands (off the west coast of Africa 1493-94
- "Invincible" group of ships sent by King Philip II of Spain to invade England in 1588; Armada was defeated by smaller, more maneuverable English "sea dogs" in the Channel.- marked the beginning of English naval dominance and end of Spanish dominance. 1588
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