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Matter and atoms Ch. 2 Miller & Levine
Biology 1 Chapter 2 Miller & Levine
basic unit of matter; neutral charge, made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons
the center of the atom where protons and neutrons are located
negatively charged atomic particles; are in constant motion around the nucleus
positively charged atomic particles; located at the center of an atom
atomic particles with no charge; located at the center of an atom
a chemically pure substance with only one type of atom
atoms of the same element that differ in the number of neutrons
a substance formed by the combination of two or more elements in definite proportions
formed when two or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another; between a metal and a non-metal
positively or negatively charged atoms
the sharing of electrons by atoms; between two metals
smallest unit of most compounds; formed by covalent bond
van der Waals forces
intermolecular forces of attraction formed by oppositely charged regions of nearby molecules
the attraction between a hydrogen atom with a partial positive charge and an atom with a partial negative charge
attraction between molecules of the same substance
an attraction between molecules of different substances
a type of mixture where all components are evenly distributed
substance that is dissolved in a solution
substance in which another substance is dissolved in a solution
mixtures of water and nondissolved materials
measurement system developed to indicate the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution
Any compound that forms H+; pH of less than 7; contains higher concentration of hydrogen atoms than water
A compound that produces OH- ions in solution; pH greater than 7; contains higher concentration of hydroxide ions. (alkaline)
weak acids or bases that can react with stronger acids or bases to prevent sudden, sharp changes in pH
small chemical unit that makes up a polymer
molecules composed of many monomers; makes up macromolecules
compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms- usually in a ratio of 1:2:1; main source of energy for living organisms
mostly made of carbon and hydrogen atoms; commonly called fats, oils or waxes; can be used to store energy
macromolecules containing hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, and phosphorus
consist of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen base, the monomer unit of nucleic acids
macromolecules that contain nitrogen as well as carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
compounds with an amino group on one end and a carboxyl group on the other end, these are monomers of protein
the process that changes or transforms one set of chemicals into another
elements or compounds that enter into a chemical reaction; input
elements or compounds produced in a chemical reaction; outcome
the energy that is needed to get a reaction started
substance that speeds the rate of the reaction process
proteins that act as biological catalysts; speed up chemical reactions that take place in cells
single sugar molecules (glucose, galactose, or fructose for example)
A material composed of two or more elements or compounds that are physically mixed together but not chemically combined
Large macromolecules formed from monosaccharides--sugar molecules
(RNA) ribonucleic acid
single-stranded nucleic acid that contains the sugar ribose
(DNA) deoxyribonucleic acid
nucleic acid that contains the sugar deoxyribose
The reactants of enzyme-catalyzed reactions
electrons in the outer shell of an atom, these are the electrons that can form bonds
If carbon has 4 valence electrons how many bonds can it form?
In a water molecule what is the charge of the hydrogen atoms?
The oxygen atom in water has what charge?
Chemical reaction that release energy
are spontaneous reactions
are reactions that will occur without the addition of energy (they release energy during the reaction)
What chemicals are abbreviated C, H, O, N
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen
What is the chemical formula for table salt?
What is the chemical formula for water?
What is the chemical formula for hydrochloric acid?
How many bonds can a carbon atom make?
Solutions with more H+ than OH- are what?