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Terms in this set (22)
describe the location of the kidneys
They are situated, one on each side of the vertebral column, just below the ribs
what does retroperitoneal mean?
behind the peritoneum
Describe the physical protection around the kidneys
- a peritoneal fat capsule (helps hold the kidneys in place)
- renal fascia
Describe the gross anatomy of the kidneys
-bean shaped organs that are located in the superior lumbar region
- surrounded by an outer renal fascia that anchors the kidney and adrenal gland to surrounding structures
- 3 distinct regions: the cortex, medulla, and renal pelvis
Describe the microscopic anatomy of the kidney (nephron)
Nephron (cortical and juxtamedullary)
- bowman's capsule
- proximal convulted tubule (PCT)
-Loop of henle (descending and ascending)
- Distal convoluted tubule (DCT)
- originates from the base of the kidney to the bladder
- each kidney has one, right shorter than the left
-3 layers, mucosal, muscular, and fibrous
- tube that carries urine from kidney to bladder
-placed on the pelvic floor
- resembles an elastic sac
- smooth muscle fibers give it great elasticity
- serves as temporary storage point for the urine before eliminated
- tube that leads from the bladder to an exterior part of the body
- enables urine to pass out of the body
what are the functions of the kidney
- eliminates wastes
- regulation of blood volume and composition
- reg of BP
- reg of blood pH
features long loops of hence that extend far into the kidneys medulla
short loops of henle and are almost entirely embedded into the kidneys cortex
What is the process of glomerular filtration?
the renal process where fluid in the blood is filtered across the capillaries of the glomerulus and into the urinary space of the bowmans capsule
what is the average glomerular filtration rate?
125 mL/min or 180 L/day
how is GFR regulated?
determined by Pcap (hydrostatic pressure in the glomerular capillary)
what is tubular resorption?
the movement of filtrate from renal tubules back into the blood in response to the body's specific needs
the passage of substances from the blood in the peritubular capillaries to the tubular filtrate
How much of each chemical is reabsorbed in the descending loop of the nephron?
- K+ 0%
- H2Oa- 10%
How much of each chemical is reabsorbed in the ascending loop of the nephron?
- K+ 35%
- H2Oa- 0%
what is the vascular pathway through the kidney?
renal artery -> segmental arteries -> interlobar arteries -> arcuate arters -> cortical radiate arteries -> afferent arterioles -> glomeruli -> efferent arterioles -> peritubular capillary beds -> cortical radiate veins -> arcuate veins -> interloar veins -> renal vein
functions of the nephron
- tubular secretion
what is the composition of urine?
95% water, nitrogenous wastes (urea, uric acid, and creatinine) and carious ions (always sodium, potassium, sulfate and phosphate)
what is not normally found in urine?
glucose, proteins, erythrocytes, leukocytes, hemoglobin, and bile pigments
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
The Digestive System
Metabolism & Thermoregulation
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