"Nervous System" - Chapter 7: The Nervous System
Flash cards consisting of information covered in the chapter 7 power point slides "Nervous System" as well as the notes taken in class.
Terms in this set (52)
Neurons which carry nerve impulses away from sensory receptors and towards the brain and spinal cord. (sensory input/ from PNS to CNS)
Neurons which carry nerve impulses towards muscles and away from the brain and spinal cord.
Central Nervous System
The part of the nervous system which consists of the brain and spinal cord.
Peripheral Nervous System
The part of the nervous system consisting of the nerves and ganglia outside of the brain and spinal cord.
Autonomic Nervous System
Motor neurons within the PNS which involuntary structures. They can further be subdivided into the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system.
Somatic Nervous System
Motor Neurons within the PNS which control voluntary structures such and skeletal muscles.
Sensory Nervous System
Afferent nerves or the PNS which control all of the sense organs.
Parasympathetic Nervous System
One of the two categories within the autonomic nervous system. It controls the rest and digestive systems. (as well as many other things)
Sympathetic Nervous System
One of the two categories within the autonomic nervous system. It controls the flight or fight response. (as well as many other things)
Non-neuron cells of the nervous system which provide support by maintaining homeostasis.
CNS supporting cells which line cavities of the brain and spinal cord. They circulate cerebrospinal fluid.
A CNS supporting cell which produces myelin sheaths around nerve fibers (axon of neuron) in the CNS.
A CNS supporting cell. They are phagocytes which dispose of debris.
A CNS supporting cell. It is abundant in the body and forms a barrier between capillaries and neurons. It is responsible for controlling the chemical environment of the brain.
An electrically insulated material that forms a layer usually around the axon of a neuron. It is created using water, lipids, and proteins.
A PNS supporting cell which forms the myelin sheath.
#1. Contains the nucleus, nucleulus, mitochondria, oligodendrocytes, microglial cells, and astrocytes.
#2. The decision of whether or not to send the signal is made here. This is where the cell body turns into the axon
A PNS supporting cell which protects neuron cell bodies.
Node of Ranvier
#3. Gaps formed between myelin sheaths. Here the axon is un-insulated and therefore capable of generating electrical activity. This renews the strength of the electrical signal.
One Schwann Cell
#5 referring to the entire capsule. A PNS supporting cell which forms the myelin sheath.
A cell specializing to transmits messages. It consists of a cell body (nucleus and metabolic center) as well as processes (fibers that extend from the cell body-axon or dendrite)
Nucleus of the Schwann Cell
#4. A long slender projection starting from the axon hillock which carries the electrical signal away from the cell body. (Axon = A for away)
#8. The distal termination of an axon that contains vesicles with neurotransmitters. Release between synapses.
#7. Increases the speed an electrical signal can travel down the axon by insulated the pathway. The more myelin sheaths you have the more intelligent you are. Brain appears white because of myelin sheaths.
Nucleus of the Neuron
#9. Contains DNA, RNA, and functions in protein synthesis.
#10. Its function is to transcribe ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and combine it with proteins to form almost-complete ribosomes.
A junction between neurons where neurotransmitters are released. (neuron to neuron)
#11. The powerhouse of the cell.
#12. Carries signals towards the cell body.
A junction between axon terminals and muscle cells (neuron to muscle)
A major component, one of two, of the CNS. It contains cell bodies and unmyelinated fibers. (Butterfly is gray matter)
Collections of sensory cell bodies outside the central nervous system.
Nerves which are always sensory and also in charge of special senses (hearing, eyes)
A major component, one of two, of the CNS. It contains myelinated axons and glial cells. (Around the dark butterfly is white matter)
Simple Reflex Arc
A process that occurs when a receptor nerve creates a signal and sends it to a sensory nerve. The signal is then send to the spinal cord and processed by an interneuron. Instead of going to the brain the signal is sent back out directly to a motor neuron towards an effector which will deliver the desired response.
In short: The nerve signal goes straight to the muscle causing a reaction isn't of being processed by the brain.
Nerves which are motor or interneurons.
Nerves which are always sensory.
Most primitive of the brain structures. It controls breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. (J)
A section of the brain made up of the mid brain, pons, and mendulla oblongotta.
Section of the brain made up of the thalamus and the hypothalamus.
A bridge to the cerebellum and refines M.O. (I)
Responsible for visual and auditory reflexes. (B)
Either of two large bundles of nerve fibers passing from the pons forward and outward to form the main connection between the cerebral hemispheres and the spinal cord (H)
Functions as a relay station. (D)
Controls emotions, body temperature, and the endocrine system. (F)
Secretes growth hormone and prolactin. (G)
Secretes melatonin which is responsible for circadian rhythms. (C)
Makes sure the motor activities of the body are smooth. (A)
Bridge between the right and left brain allowing communication. (E)