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42 terms

A&P Ch. 2

STUDY
PLAY
Which of the following is a disacharide?
Lactose
Sodium, which has an atomic number of 11, will react with chlorine, which has an atomic number of 17. when these two atoms react, both become stable. To become stable, sodium will_____, while chlorine will____
Give up one electron; accept one electron
The folding and coiling of proteins into globular and fibrous shapes determines the____ structure of the protein.
Tertiary
Glucose is broken down in most of your cells to form carbon dioxide, oxygen, and the energy currency of the cell called ATP. What type of chemical reaction is this?
catabolic or exergonic
When table salt, sodium chloride (NaCl), is placed in water
Ionic bonds between Na+ and Cl- are broken.
Any chemical reaction that removes electrons from an atom is called?
Oxidation
What type of bond attracts one water molecule to another?
A hydrogen bond
which of the following equations depicts and exchange reaction?
AB + CD --> AC + BD
tryglycerides are molecules consisting of one 3-carbon compund called___bound to three____
glycerol; fatty acids
Consider a mixture of blood, which contains sodium chloride, protein, and cells or formed elements. the sodium chloride is in a____, the protein is in a___, and cells are in a___
Solution; colloid; suspension
A solution that resists a change in pH when acid or base is added to it is?
A buffer
___ accounts for 98.5% of the body's weight.
Carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, calcium, and phosphorus.
Proteins can serve all of the following fucntions except
Store hereditary information
WHich of these is a cation
Ca2+
Oxygen has an atomic number of eight. When two oxygen atoms come together, they for a ___ bond
nonpolar covalent
when you jump off a high diving board into water, you notice great resistance of water. This resistance is called___ and is caused by water's great
Surface tension; coesiveness
Which of these is a cation
Ca2+
the most abundant element in the human body, by weight, is
oxygen
Varietes of elements called___ differ from one another only in number of neutrons and therefore in atomic mass
Isotopes
The breakdown of glycogen is and example of a____reaction
Exergonic
nucleic acids are___ of ___
Polymers; nucleotides
a ___ is a group of atoms that determines many of the properties of an oganic molecule
Functional group
Proteins are___ built from ____ different amino acids
Polymers; 20
the formula for an amino group is____ whereas the formula of a carboxyl group is___
-NH2' +COOH
Digestive enzymes breakdown the starch in a potatio into thousands of glucose molecules. this is an example of
Decomposition
Blood has a pH ranging for 7.35 to 7.45. slight deviations from this can cause major problems, even death. You are doing an intense workout, and your skeletal muscle cells are producing metablolic acids such as lactic acid. Your blood pH does not drop significantly in spite of the metabolic acids release into the blood. You maintain a constant blood pH because
the body contains chemicals called buffers that resist changes in pH
Table sugar is a disaccharide call___ and is made u pof the monomers___
Sucrose; glucose and fructose
which of these is hydrophobic
fat
a____ converts a___ to its monomers
Hydrolysis; polymer
which of these has the highest H+ concentration?
Lemon Juice, PH=2.3
Consider oxygen, which has an atomic number of 8 and an atomic mass of 16. How many valence electrons does it have?
6
The chemical properties of an atom are determined by its
electrons
which of these is the most appropriate to express number of molecules per volum?
molarity
when ATP breaks down ADP, potential energy stored in bonds is released. This energy stored in bonds is____ energy
chemical
____are major components of cell membranes, and are said to be___
Phospholipids; amphiphilic
which of these is the most appropriate to express number of molecules per volums?
Molarity
enzymes are specific to substrates because of the shaped of their
active sites
the bonding properties of an atom are determined by its
electrons
all enzymes are___, but not all of those are enzymes.
Proteins
ATP_____ endergonic and exergonic reactions
links
Proteoglycans are macromolecules that form gels, which help hold cells and tissues together, lubricate joints, and account for the tough rubbery texture of cartilage. Proteoglycans are composed of
Carbohydrates and proteins
Glucose is broken down in most of your cells to form carbon dioxide, oxygen, and the energy currency of the cell called ATP. What type of chemical reaction is this?
Catabolic or exergonic