Pre-AP English (Pre-AP 1) Grammar Terms
Terms in this set (48)
part of speech that is a person, place, thing, or idea
part of speech that is an action or state of being
part of speech that answers how, for what reason, to what extent, under what condition and modifies a verb, adjective, or adverbs
part of speech that answers what kind, which one, or how many and modifies a noun or pronoun
part of speech that links other parts of the sentence (or, and, but)
part of speech that shows direction, location, or relationship.
part of speech that replaces a noun
part of speech that ends in exclamation or comma, like Darn! Ow! Woo-hoo!
rename noun phrases and are usually placed beside what they rename
verbal in which a verb is used as a noun and any of its modifiers. It can be used as a subject, direct object, object of the preposition,, etc.
will begin with to + simple form of the verb and include objects and/or modifiers
a phrase that begins with a verb used as an adjective
a phrase that begins with a part of speech that shows relationship, direction, or location and will also have an object at the end (ie: under the bed, on the dresser, to John)
clause contains a subject and a verb, AND it can stand alone
clause contains a subject and a verb, but it is characterized as beginning with a dependent marker word (ie: although, despite, while, because, etc.) and therefore cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence.
the kind of sentence that makes a statement or "declares" something
a more forceful version of a declarative sentence, marked at the end with an exclamation mark
gives a direct command to someone
asks a direct question
A sentence with an independent clause and at least one dependent clause
A sentence consisting of two or more coordinate independent clauses
A sentence consisting of at least two coordinate independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses
a complex sentence in which the main clause comes first and the subordinate clause follows
a complex sentence in which the main clause comes last and is preceded by the subordinate clause
a sentence having no coordinate or subordinate clauses
the grammatical arrangement of words in a sentence
placement of direct opposites
An epithet (Greek epitheton) is a descriptive word or phrase, often metaphoric, that is essentially a reduced or condensed appositive. Epithets are sometimes attached to a person's name, such as Richard the Lionheart or Alexander the Great. In contemporary usage, epithet often means an abusive or defamatory phrase.
placing things side-by-side for effect
absence of any conjunctions
leaving words out
using unnecessary conjunctions
repeating words at the beginning of a sentence
the counterpart of anaphora, because the repetition of the same word or words comes at the end of successive phrases, clauses or sentences
changing the normal order of syntax
A crossing parallelism, where the second part of a grammatical construction is balanced or paralleled by the first part, only in reverse order. Instead of an A,B structure (eg, "learned unwillingly") paralleled by another A,B structure ("forgotten gladly"), the A,B will be followed by B,A ("gladly forgotten"). So instead of writing "What is learned unwillingly is forgotten gladly," you could write, "What is learned unwillingly is gladly forgotten." Similarly, the parallel sentence, "What is now great was at first little," could be written chiastically as, "What is now great was little at first."
fragment for a specific purpose
question with no answer intended
a technique in drama or poetry, in which alternating lines, or half-lines, are given to alternating characters, voices, or entities.
placing two things side by side for effect
a word or phrase adding a characteristic to a person's name (Catherine the Great or Ivan the Terrible)
an incomplete sentence for a rhetorical purpose
what the action of a sentence is being done to; it answers the question who or what after an ACTION verb. (John kicked the BALL; She wrote a BOOK. I love YOU)
Comes between an ACTION verb and the direct object. It answers the questions: to whom, to what, for whom, or for what after an ACTION verb (I wrote HIM a letter; I gave HER some money)
sentence structure so that the subject is doing the acting. (Mike hit the ball.) The subject "Mike" is the one doing the hitting.
sentence structure in which the subject is acted upon by the verb, making the direct object the new subject. (The ball was kicked by Mike.) Sometimes it will leave the original subject out entirely. The ball was kicked. When you see a sentence in which the verb has a "to be" verb helping (was written, was hit, was suspended) but it doesn't have the "by _______" phrase at the end, simply add your own "by zombies" at the end. If it makes sense, it's passive voice. (The ball was kicked BY ZOMBIES, This was written BY ZOMBIES, Regret was shown BY ZOMBIES).
a subject complement (adjective that comes after the verb) that DESCRIBES the subject after a LINKING verb. (She is MEAN, I am HAPPY)
a subject complement (noun that comes after the verb) that RENAMES the subject after a LINKING verb. (She is A MOTHER, I am A TEACHER)