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Terms in this set (156)
Point mutations always result in a change in the amino acid sequence of the protein encoded by the gene.
DNA is a double-stranded nucleic acid that exists as a double helix. Which of the following is responsible for holding the double helix of DNA together?
How many turns of the DNA double helix correspond to twenty base pairs?
Which term describes the process by which a message from DNA in the form of mRNA is converted into the primary sequence of amino acids in a protein?
All tRNA molecules have a CCA sequence at their 3' ends.
In protein synthesis, new amino acids are attached to the N-terminus of the growing peptide chain.
Which type of RNA carries the needed amino acids to the ribosomes for use in protein synthesis?
Which enzyme catalyzes the transcription of DNA?
Which of the following are correct base pairs in DNA?
1. adenine and thymine 2. adenine and cytosine
3. thymine and guanine 4. cytosine and guanine
1 and 4
The gluconeogenesis pathway is the reverse of glycolysis.
The abbreviated form of the equation for the first reaction of glycolysis is shown below. What is the missing product in this reaction?
glucose + Pi + 3 kcal/mol → water + ?
In what stage of catabolism is the most ATP produced?
Glycogenesis occurs under which of the following conditions?
when digestion of polysaccharides provides high levels of blood glucose
The energy released from the oxidation of the food we eat can be used to form ATP.
The last step in alcohol fermentation involves the reduction of acetaldehyde and the oxidation of NADH. What is the structure of the reduction product?
What is an important result of the lactate and ethanol fermentation processes?
NADH is reoxidized to NAD+, which allows glycolysis to continue.
ATP contains the sugar deoxyribose.
Into what final product is glucose converted at the end of glycolysis?
What key reducing agent is formed in the pentose phosphate pathway for glucose oxidation?
The hydrolysis of ATP can be used to "drive" a reaction. What does this mean?
The energy produced from the hydrolysis of ATP is used by energy requiring reactions in the body.
The primary function of catabolic pathways is the generation of a particular substance. What is this substance?
The hormone insulin stimulates which of the following biochemical pathways?
The enzyme triose phosphate isomerase catalyzes the isomerization of dihydroxyacetone phosphate. What is the product of this reaction?
Excess glucose is stored in the body as glycogen. Where are these glycogen reserves primarily found?
liver and skeletal muscles
In the first substrate-level phosphorylation in glycolysis, a phosphoryl group is transferred from 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate to ADP, thus producing ATP. What is the other product of this reaction?
Which coenzyme form must be reoxidized so that glycolysis can continue to produce ATP for the cell?
What compound is produced during strenuous exercise, when the muscles are depleted of oxygen?
Red blood cells rely exclusively on lactate as their energy source.
Which pathway is believed to be the first successful pathway for harvesting energy to have evolved on Earth?
What is the first reaction in glycolysis, which traps glucose within the cell?
phosphorylation of glucose
How many NADH are produced for each glucose molecule that enters glycolysis?
Digestion of carbohydrates begins in the mouth with the aid of what enzyme?
What substance is converted into fructose-6-phosphate by the enzyme phosphoglucoisomerase?
How many molecules of ATP are produced by oxidative phosphorylation for each molecule of NADH produced in the citric acid cycle?
Which organelle in the cytoplasm of the cell is the energy-producing factory of the cell?
The ribosomes found in eukaryotic cells allow the mitochondria to synthesize some of their own proteins.
Mitochondria are football shaped organelles located inside the nucleus of a cell.
The mitochondria are aerobic.
What is the ultimate fate of glucose under aerobic conditions?
complete oxidation to CO2 by way of the citric acid cycle
What amino acids can be used as fuel for the body?
Only those amino acids that are not needed for protein synthesis
What is the coenzyme that is required in all transamination reactions?
What protein complex in the inner mitochondrial membrane allows protons to return to the matrix?
What is the usual fate of the α-amino group in the catabolism of amino acids?
It is converted into urea which is excreted by the body in urine
A portion of the citric acid cycle is shown below. What are the identities of A and B?
citrate → A → isocitrate → B
A = cis-aconitate
B = α-ketoglutarate
Where in the body does the degradation of amino acids occur?
In the final step of the citric acid cycle, malate dehydrogenase reduces NAD+ to NADH. Into what product is malate converted in this reaction?
How many molecules of ATP can be produced by the complete oxidation of one molecule of glucose in aerobic respiration?
Which correctly represents the products that result from the complete oxidation of an acetyl group in the citric acid cycle?
2 CO2, 3 NADH, 1 FADH2, and 1 ATP
The acetyl group of acetyl CoA is transferred to oxaloacetate by the enzyme citrate synthase.
A deficiency of urea cycle enzymes causes an elevation of the ammonium ion concentration.
What is another name for the F0F1 complex involved in oxidative phosphorylation?
What alternative name of the citric acid cycle is used in honor of the scientist who first proposed the steps of the cycle?
Where in the mitochondrion are the protein complexes responsible for oxidative phosphorylation located?
inner mitochondrial membrane
Which of the following best describes the function of NAD+ and FAD in catabolic pathways?
6 member ring fused to a 5 member rin
6 member ring
adenine hydrogen bonds to
cytosine hydrogen bonds to
breaks hydrogen bonds
travels along DNA ahead of fork
catalyzes synthesis of RNA primer
DNA polymerase III
enzyme part of elongation
process by which a single strand of DNA serves as a template for the synthesis of an RNA molecule
converts DNA information from one language of nitrogenous bases into another of amino acids
complementary copy of a gene
structural and functional component of the ribosome
transfers amino acids to the site of protein synthesis
removal of portions of the primary transcript that are not protein coding
more than one 3 base codon can code for the same amino acid
each codon specifies a particular amino acid
none of the bases are shared between consecutive codons
nonoverlapping and commaless
all organisms use the same code
specify termination signals for translation
peptide bond formation in chain elongation catalyzed by which enzyme
substitution of a single nucleotide for another
one or more nucleotides are lost
one or more nucleotides are added
failure to repair UV damage defect leads to what
powerful technique that allows scientists to produce unlimited amounts of a gene of interest
polymerase chain reaction
bacterium that produces a heat stable RNA polymerase to drive polymerase chain reaction
RNA polymerase in polymerase chain reaction
the degradation of fuel molecules which provides energy for cellular energy requiring functions
salivary glands secrete _____ to digest ________
stomach secretes ______ and _____
pancreas secretes ______ and _____
serine proteases, lipases
liver and gallbladder deliver what
transport for amino acids, hexoses to enter cell
transport for fatty acids and glycerol to move
enzyme to break a disaccharide into two monosaccharides
enzyme that breaks peptide into two amino acids
enzyme that breaks triglyceride into three fatty acids and a glycerol
1st energy investment in glycolysis & enzyme
glucose to glucose-6-phosphate, hexokinase
2nd energy investment in glycolysis & enzyme
fructose-6-phosphate to fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, phosphofructokinase
6 carbon breaks into two 3 carbon compounds in glycolysis & enzyme
fructose-1,6-bisphosphate to dihydroxyacetone and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, aldolase
step that NADH is released in glycolysis & enzyme
glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate to 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase
1st energy payoff in glycolysis & enzyme
1,3-bisphosphoglycerate to 3-phosphoglycerate, phosphoglycerate kinase
2nd energy payoff in glycolysis & enzyme
phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvate, pyruvate kinase
phosphofructokinase activator and inhibitor in glycolysis
fructose-2,6-bisphosphate (AMP), citrate (ATP)
pyruvate kinase activator and inhibitor in glycolysis
fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (AMP), acetyl CoA (ATP)
anaerobic metabolism that occurs in exercising muscle
yeast ferments sugars of fruits and grains anaerobically, using pyruvate
enzyme in alcohol fermentation that removes CO2 from the pyruvate, producing acetaldehyde
enzyme in alcohol fermentation that catalyzes reduction of acetaldehyde to ethanol, and releases NAD+
alternative to glycolysis for glucose oxidation
pentose phosphate pathway
NADPH for biosynthesis is produced in the pentose phosphate pathway
produced from pentose phosphate pathway
ribose-5-phosphate, 2 xylulose-5-phosphate, 2 fructose-6-phosphate, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate
synthesis of glucose
compounds that can make glucose via gluconeogenesis
lactate, glycerol, amino acids
where gluconeogenesis occurs
enzyme stimulated by high ATP in gluconeogenesis
lactate from skeletal muscle transferred to the liver, converted to pyruvate then glucose, glucose then returned to the muscle
alpha(1->4) and alpha(1->6)
exists as granules found in cytoplasm of liver and muscle cells
glycogen degradation is controlled by
enzyme that catalyzes the removal of an end glucose as glucose-1-phosphate in glycogenolysis
enzyme that catalyzes the removal of the last glucose at an alpha(1-->6) branch as glucose in glycogenolysis
enzyme that converts glucose-1-phosphate to glucose-6-phosphate
blood sugar when glycogen synthase is activated
high blood sugar
blood sugar when glycogen phosphorylase is activated
low blood sugar
loss of carboxyl as CO2
enzyme complex that converts pyruvate and CoA to acetyl CoA
pyruvate dehydrogenase complex
allosterically regulated reactions: conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA is inhibited by
high concentrations of ATP, acetyl CoA, NADH
allosterically regulated reactions: synthesis of citrate from oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA has a negative effector when
high concentrations of ATP
allosterically regulated reactions: oxidation and decarboxylation of isocitrate to alpha-ketoglutarate is inhibited by
high concentrations of ATP, NADH
allosterically regulated reactions: conversion of alpha-ketoglutarate to succinyl CoA is inhibited by
high concentrations of ATP, succinyl CoA, NADH
NADH produces how many ATP molecules through oxidative phosphorylation
FADH2 produces how many ATP molecules through oxidative phosphorylation
place where ATP synthesis occurs
process where alpha-amino acid converts to alpha-keto acid and alpha-ketoglutarate converts to glutamate
process where alpha-ketoglutarate converts to glutamate as NAD+ is reduced to NADH
process where NH4+ is converted to urea
combination of sugar with a purine/pyrimidine case with a beta-n-glycosidic linkage
complete set of genetic information for all chromosomes
tRNA codon at 3' end
signals in DNA to mark boundaries of introns
each group of 3 nucleotides in the sequence of mRNA
any chemical that causes a change in the DNA sequence
bacterial enzyme that "cuts" the sugar phosphate backbone of DNA molecules at a specific nucleotide sequence
high energy bond joining two phosphoryl groups of ATP
hydrolysis of macromolecules to subunits
conversion of subunits to a form that can be completely oxidized (acetyl CoA)
complete oxidation of acetyl CoA and production of ATP
disease from inability to produce enough ATP
inhibits glycogen degradation and stimulates glycogen synthesis when blood glucose levels are too high
inhibits glycogen synthesis and stimulates glycogen degradation when blood glucose levels are too low
large thiol derived from ATP and the vitamin pantothenic acid
energy of electrons from the oxidation of substrates is used to phosphorylate ADP
terminal electron acceptor of aerobic organisms
reaction that replenishes a substrate needed for a biochemical reaction
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