Terms in this set (56)

Developed in the 1930s by Walter Christaller, this model explains and predicts patterns of urban places across the map. In his model, Christaller analyzed the hexagonal, hierarchical pattern of cities, villages, towns, and hamlets arranged according to their varying degrees of centrality, determined by the central place functions existing in urban places and the hinterland they serve.
picture: hexagonal market areas

orange book: provides a framework for looking at the relationship between settlements of different sizes, especially their ability to provide various goods and services.

blue book: Christaller provided a model for settlement patterns based on several assumptions:
-no topographic barriers
-no difference in farm productivity
-an evenly dispersed farm settlement
-people with similar lifestyles
-differing thresholds
-purchase of goods and services
His results have formed the basis of central place theory ever since:

1. The landscape is divided into noncompeting market areas (complementary regions).
2. The market areas form a series of hexagons that cover the area, with no area unserved and no area with equal service from two centers.
3. The central place is at the center of each hexagon.
4. The size of the market area of each central place is based on the number of goods and services offered. (direct relationship)
5. Within each hexagon lie smaller hexagons with central places that serve smaller areas. This nesting of small hexagons within larger ones creates a hierarchy of central places, with small centers providing lower-order servies than the large centers do.

Christaller came to two important conculsinos regarding settlement patterns.
1. Towns of the same size are evenly spaced bc they are in the center of like-sized market areas. Larger towns will be farther apart than smaller towns bc their market areas are larger.
2. Towns are part of an interdependent system. If a central place is eliminated, the entire system readjusts, altering the spatial pattern to meet the needs and demands of the inhabitants.
These conclusions describe agricultural cities particularly well. It does fairly accurately describe special-function cities and transportation-based cities.

vocab for this theory:
central place: urban centers that provide services to their surrounding rural people
range: maximum distance people are willing to travel to use a service
threshold: minimum number of people needed to support a service
spatial competetion: central places compete with each other for customers

notes:-helps decide best place for a new business
-hexagon shaped bc circle not practical because of overlapping and it leaves open spaces, square not ideal because it isnt equidistant. Hexagon was final solution
Larry Ford and Ernest Griffin created a model of the pattern of urban growth in Latin America. Their model contains elements of Latin American culture and imprints of colonization and globalization, such as a prominent plaza and heavy growth around the CBD. However, in the Latin American pattern shown in their model, residential quality decreases with distance from the CBD. The model also presents a zone of maturity, populated with services and a wealthier population, a zone of squatter settlements, where recent urban migrants set up makeshift housing; and a zone of in situ accretion, which is a transitional zone that shows signs of transition to a zone of maturity.

-wealthy live in same sector-stronger infrastructure
DEF of infrastructure: all the facilities that support basic economic activities to such a degree that a city cannot function without them
-favelas (barrios)
-disamenity sector

orange book: shows the wealthy living close to the CBD. Industrial sectors radiate out from the CBD, and the poorest live on the urban fringe in squatter settlements; known by a variety of names such as barrios (Mexico) and favelas (Brazilian)

blue book: model that blends traditional elements of Latin American culture with forces of modernization that are changing them rapidly. The CBD is the focus just like in North America, but it is divided into a market sector, where old-fashioned markets are set up; and a high rise sector, where more modern businesses are. From this area, a commercial spine radiates away from the city, and is surrounded by the elite residential sector. This leads to an edge city.
The remaining concentric zones are residential areas for the poor and the middle class. Closer in are the middle classes who form a "zone of maturity" where they generally maintain their homes well enough to keep them from deteriorating.
The disamenity sector is a relatively stable slum area that radiates from the central market to the outermost zone of peripheral squatter settlements consists of hih-density shantytowns.

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