Upgrade to remove ads
Chapter 27: Athens and Sparta
Terms in this set (44)
What was the city of Athens like?
It was a walled city located by the sea. Nearby was a busy port for trade. Inside the walls, potters and sculptors were hard at work while wealthy Athenians strolled through the market place.It was a big trading port and they imported and exported many things. Women had very little rights in Athens.
What was Sparta like?
Sparta was located in a fertile farming area on an inland plain. No walls surrounded this city. The buildings were simple like the clothes worn by the people. Spartan soldiers were stern and wore bronze helmets as they marched in columns down the streets.
What form of government did Athens have?
They had a democracy.
What form of government did Sparta have?
They had an oligarchy.
How far apart were the two city-states?
About 150 miles apart.
What caused the city-states to be so different?
Part of the answer is geography.Athens is located in central Greece, which is only four miles from the Aegean Sea, while Sparta is far more isolated. It is located on a narrow plain on a peninsula in southern Greece. Sparta was surrounded by mountains and it's harbor was 25 miles away! Also, they had different values. While Athenians valued their art and culture, the Spartans valued simplicity and strength.Lastly, Athens had a democracy but Sparta had a oligarchy.
What made the Athenian democracy different from a modern democracy?
In an Athenian democracy, only free men could be citizens. All Athenian born men who were over the age of 18 were permitted citizenship.
how did the Athenian government work?
Every citizen could take part in the government. A group called the Council of 500 met everyday to run daily business of government and possibly suggest some new laws.Each year the names of all citizens 30 years or older were collected. Then, 500 citizens were selected to be on the council.
When and how did the Athenian assembly meet?
the assembly would on a hill every 10 days. at least 6000 citizens had to be present for the meeting to take place. If fewer people attended a meeting, slaves armed with ropes dipped in red paint would be sent to round up more citizens. Athenian men were said to be embarrassed to show up in red at these meetings.
What did the Athenian assembly do?
They debated issues and voted on laws proposed by the council. All citizens had the right to speak at these meetings.however, some speakers were more skilled than others, and spoke longer. Sometimes a water clock was used to time speakers. When the water ran out, their speaking time was over. Most Athenian men enjoyed participating in these debates and took pride in their freedom as Athenian citizens.
What is an economy?
Its the way in which a community or region organizes the manufacture and exchange of money, food, products, and services to meet people's needs.
For what reason did the Athenians have to rely heavily on trade?
Because the land around them did not provide enough food for all the city's people, Athens economy was based on trade.
What was important about Athens location?
Athens was near the sea, and it had a good harbor. This enabled them to trade with other city-states and with several foreign lands to obtain goods and natural resources that they lacked.
What did Athenians trade, and what did they receive back?
they would trade olives, olive oil,honey, silver and pottery. and in exchange would get wood from Italy, and grain from Egypt.
What was the agora?
It was a huge marketplace where merchants could sell their goods from small stands. Athenians bought lettuce, onions, olive oil, and other foods. Shoppers could also buy household items such as pottery, furniture,and clay oil lamps. Although most people made clothes at home, sandals and jewelry were popular items at the market. It was also the place where Athenians sold and bought slaves.
What did the Athenians do to make trade easier?
they made their own coins. their coins were made from gold, silver, and bronze. They decorated the flat sides of the coins. One showed showed an image of the goddess Athena. The other side showed an image of Athena's favorite bird, the owl.
What did Athenian democracy depend on?What was the main reason for education?
It depended on having well prepared citizens. People in Athens believed that producing good citizens was the main purpose for education.
Were boys and girls educated the same in Athens?
No, since only boys could grow up to be citizens, girls and boys were educated quite differently.
What did the Athenians believe made a good citizen?
They believed that a good citizen should have both an intelligent mind and a healthy body. Therefore, book learning and physical training were important.
What was a boys educational life like in Athens?
Boys were taught at their homes by their mothers or male slaves until the age of 6 or 7. They would then go to school until the age of about 14. Here teachers taught them reading, writing, arithmetic, and literature. since books were rare and expensive, they had to read subjects out loud and memorize everything. They used stone tablets. To build the boys' strength, coaches would teach wrestling and gymnastics. Boys also studied music. They learned to sing and to play the lyre, a stringed instrument like a harp.
What happened to Athenian boys when they were 18?
At 18, Athenian men began their military training. After the army service, wealthy young men might study with private teachers. These teachers charged high fees for lessons in debating and public speaking that would help young men become future political leaders.
What was Athenian girls education like?
Unlike boys, girls did not learn to read or write. Instead, they grew up helping their mothers cook, clean, spin thread, and weave cloth. Some also learned ancient songs and dances performed for religious festivals. Girls were usually married by the age of around 15. those from wealthy families married men chosen by their fathers. Girls from poor families often had more choice.
What was citizenship like for Athenian women and slaves?
They were not permitted citizenship, so they had far fewer rights than men did.
How were women treated in Athens.
Women did not have as many rights as men. They couldn't vote or go to the assembly meetings. Most couldn't even choose their own husbands. Only some had jobs and very few of the important women were priestesses. But Athenian women spent most of their time in their homes managing the household, raising children, cooking cleaning, weaving, spinning and supervising the slaves. She would teach her sons until they were about 6-7 and ready for school. She taught her daughters until they were 15 and ready to marry.
who had slaves in Athens and how did they get there?
Most Athenians who weren't poor had at least 1 slave. Some slaves were born into it. Others were forced into slavery as captives of war.
What did slaves do for the Athens?
They did a wide variety of jobs including tasks that required a lot of skill. They would run households and teach Athenian children. A number of slaves were trained as artisans. Others worked on farms or in factories. Slaves worked for the city as clerks too. Some worked in the silver mines in cramped tunnels 300 feet below the surface. They had little air to breathe and were often harshly punished if they stopped to rest.
What was Sparta dedicated to and what did they value?
They valued simplicity and strength and were dedicated to military strength and producing well-trained soldiers. Sparta was the leading military power in the Mediterranean area until about 370 B.C.E.
What was the Spartan assembly?
Like Athens, Sparta had an assembly. The decisions were made by a much smaller group called the council of elders. They suggested laws and had power over the assembly.
What was the Spartan Council of Elders?
It was a council that consisted of 2 kings and 28 other men. The 2 kings inherited their position and shared equal power. The 28 members were elected by the members of the assembly. To be elected for the council of elders, you had to be 60 years old and from a noble family. Some believe that members for the assembly were voted for by shouting. The men who received the loudest support were elected. Once elected, they would serve for life.
What did the Spartan assembly do?
the council held real power in Sparta. It prepared laws for the assembly to vote on, and it had the power to stop any laws from being passed that they didn't like. the assembly was made up of all male citizens. Because of the assembly's large size, they met in a large outdoor area away from the city. The assembly had very little power. Unlike The assembly in Athens, it did not debate issues. Members of the assembly could only vote yes or no to the laws suggested by the council.
What did Spartan economy rely on?
They relied on farming and on conquests of other people.
What was the problem with Spartan farming?
Even though the land was fertile, there was not enough food to grow enough crops to feed everyone. If necessary, they took lands they needed from their neighbors, who were often then forced to work for Sparta.
What would some slaves and non-citizens do for Sparta?
Since Spartan men were expected to serve in the army until the age of 60, slaves and non-citizens were relied on to produce goods Sparta lacked.
What happened to conquered villages?
They would become slaves called helots. the helots were allowed to live in their own villages, but they had to give much of their food to Sparta.
What did Sparta do with non-citizens?
Non-citizens were a second group of people who were free. Non-citizens would serve in the army when needed, but they could not take part in Sparta's government. they were responsible for making necessary items such as red cloaks for war,shoes, iron knives and spears, and pottery. They also conducted some trade with other city-states for things they could not provide for themselves.
What did Sparta think of trade?
In general, Sparta discouraged trade. They feared that contact with other city states would lead to new ideas that would make the government weaker. Trading with Sparta was already difficult because of their money system. They would use heavy iron bars as money. According to a legend, an ancient Spartan leader decided to use this form of money to discourage stealing. An iron bar had little value. A thief would need to steal many iron bars to make the theft worthwhile. Most city states were not anxious to to receive iron bars as payment for goods.
What was the purpose of education in Sparta?
To produce capable men and women who could fight to protect the city state. Spartans were likely to abandon infants who may not grow up to become strong soldiers.
How were Spartan children educated?
Spartans highly valued discipline and strength. At the age of 7, all Spartan children were trained for battle. Even girls were given some military training. They learned wrestling, boxing, foot racing, and gymnastics. Spartan boys lived and trained in buildings called barracks. Boys learned to read and write, but those skills were not considered as important as military skills.
What did the Spartans do to enforce their goal of being a brave soldier.
Spartan boys were taught to suffer through any amount of physical pain without complaining. They marched without shoes. They were not well fed; in fact,they were encouraged to steal food, as long as they did not get caught. One Spartan legend tells of a boy who was so hungry, he stole a fox to eat. But seeing his teacher coming, he quickly his the fox under his cloak. the boy let the fox bite him in the stomach rather than be caught stealing.
What did Spartan men do at the age of 20?
They were given a difficult test of fitness, military ability, and leadership skills. If they passed, they became Spartan soldiers and full citizens. Even then the continued to live in soldiers barracks where they ate, slept, and trained to live with their classmates. A man could not live at home with his wife and family until he was 30 years old. At the age of 60 Spartan men could retire from the army.
How were the lives of Spartan women?
Women lived the same simple life as Spartan men. They wore simple clothing with little decoration. They did not wear jewelry, cosmetics, or perfume. Like spartan men, spartan women were expected to be strong and healthy; and ready to fight when needed. A wife was expected to look after her husbands property while he was away in times of war. She also had to protect it against invaders and revolts by slaves.
What kind of rights did spartan women have?
Spartan women had many rights that other Greek women did not have. They were free to speak with their husbands friends. they own an control their property, and they could even marry again,should their first husband be away at war for too long.
Why would the Spartans sometimes declare war on the helots?
So that any slaves they thought might rebel could be legally killed. Once the Spartans Killed all the strongest helots to eliminate the possibility of any future helot leaders.
What rights did the helots have?
Despite their harsh treatment, Helots did have some rights. They could marry whoever they wanted whenever they wanted and could pass their names on to their children. They could sell any leftover crops and could buy themselves out of slavery.
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Athens v. sparta
Life In Two City States - Athens and Sparta
Athens and Sparta
History Alive! Ancient World Chapter 27
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Social studies chapter 27 vocab.
OTHER QUIZLET SETS
Second Semester Ap Gov (Master Set)
Unit I- Health Information System
Bio 330 Evolution