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110 terms

Anatomy Lab 1

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What is the term gross anatomy?
Gross anatomy, also called topographical anatomy, is the study of anatomy at the macroscopic level.

The term gross distinguishes it from other areas of anatomical study, including microscopic anatomy, which is studied on a microscopic scale, typically with a microscope.

Other branches of anatomy are histology, embryology and neuroanatomy.
Define axial (Surface Anatomy)
Of relating to head, neck and trunk

Axis of the body

Axialliary = Armpit
Define appendicular (Surface anatomy)
Relating to limbs and their attachments to the axis
Define acromial area
Shoulder
Define antebrachial
Pertaining to the forearm
Define antecubital
Pertaining to the anterior surface of the elbow
Brachial show where it is
Pertaining to the arm (upper portion of the appendage)
Buccal
Pertains to the cheek
Carpal
Pertaining to the wrist
Cervical
Pertaining to the neck region
Coxal
Pertaining to the hip
Shows the abdominal region
Crural
Pertaining to the Leg
Digital region
Pertaining to the fingers or toes
Femoral Area
Pertaining to the Thigh
Fibular (Peroneal)
Pertaining to the side of the leg

Purple in figure
Frontal
Pertaining to the forehead
Hallux
Pertaining to the great toe
Inguinal
Pertaining to the groin
Mammary
Pertaining to the breast
Mental
Pertaining to the chin
Nasal
Pertaining to the nose
Oral
Pertaining to the mouth
Orbital
Pertaining to the bony eye socket (orbit)
Palmar
Pertaining to the palm of the hand
Patellar
Pertaining to the anterior knee (kneecap) region
Pedal
Pertaining to the foot
Pelvic
Pertaining to the pelvis region
Pollex
Pertaining to the thumb
Pubic
Pertaining to the genital region
Sternal
Pertaining to the region of the breastbone
Tarsal
Pertaining to the ankle
Thoracic
Pertaining to the chest
Umbilical
Pertaining to the navel
Brachial
Pertaining to the arm
Calcaneal
Pertaining to the heel of the foot
Cephalic
Pertaining to the head
Dorsum
Pertaining to the back
Femoral
Pertaining to the thigh
Gluteal
Pertaining to the buttocks or rump
Lumbar
Pertaining to the area of the back between the ribs and hips; the loin
Manus
Pertaining to the hand
Occipital
Pertaining to the posterior aspects of the head or base of the skull
Olecranal
Pertaining to the posterior aspect of the elbow
Otic
Pertaining to the ear
Perineal
Pertaining to the region between the anus and external genitalia
Plantar
Pertaining to the sole of the foot
Popliteal
Pertaining to the back of the knee
Sacral
Pertaining to the region between the hips (overlying the sacrum)
Scapular
Pertaining to the scapula or shoulder blade area
Sural
Pertaining to the calf or posterior surface of the leg
Vertebral
Pertaining to the area of the spinal column
Body Orientation and Direction

Body Regions

Superior vs. Inferior

Give examples of a comparison of:
1. mouth and nose
2. liver and heart
Superior/inferior(above/below): These terms refer to placement of a structure along the long axis of the body.

Superior structures always appear above other structures, and inferior structures are always below other structures.

For example, the nose is superior to the mouth, and the abdomen is inferior to the chest.
Body Orientation and Direction

Body Regions

Anterior and Posterior
In humans the most anterior structures are those that are most forward—the face, chest, and abdomen.

Posterior structures are those toward the
backside of the body. For instance, the spine is posterior to the heart.
Body Orientation and Direction

Body Regions

Medial vs. Lateral
Medial - Toward the midline

Laterial - Away from midline or medial plane

Ex: The sternum (breastbone) is medial to the ribs; The ear is lateral to the nose
Body Orientation and Direction

Body Regions

Cephalic vs. Caudal
Cephalic - Toward the head

Caudal - Toward the tail

In humans this is interchangeable with superior and inferior

In bipeds, this is synonymous with anterior and posterior, respectively
Body Orientation and Direction

Body Regions

Dorsal vs. Ventral
Dorsal - Backside
Ventral - Bellyside

Comparative anatomy of animals, assuming animal is standing.

Dorsum = "Back" (Animals back or backside)
Ventral = "Belly" (Animals belly side)

Humans - Ventral and Dorsal is interchangeable with anterior and posterior

Animals - Ventral and Dorsal is interchangeable with inferior and superior
Body Orientation and Direction

Body Regions

Proximal vs. Distal
Proximal - Nearer to trunk
Distal - Away from trunk

Located on body limbs as a reference

Fingers are distal to elbow
Knee is proximal to toes

(Always in relation to something else)
Body Orientation and Direction

Body Regions

Superficial vs. Deep
Superficial (External)
Deep (Internal)

Locate in reference to their relative closeness to the body surface

Skin is superficial to the skeletal muscles
Lungs are deep to the rib cage
Sections and Planes

Sagittal

What are other sagittal planes called?
AKA Midsagittal AKA Median

A plane that runs longitudinally and divides the body into right and lefts parts

All planes that are not median are referred to as parasagittal planes
Sections and Planes

Frontal (coronal)
Frontal = Coronal

Divides the body into anterior (Front) and posterior (Back) parts
Sections and Planes

Transverse

What are these cuts commonly referred as?
A plane that runs horizontally, dividing the body into superior and inferior parts.

Sections are commonly called "Cross sections" - CT scan
Cranial Cavity
Brain enclosed with rigid skull

Continuous with spinal cavity
Spinal Cavity
Delicate spinal cord is contained within and protected by bony vertebral column

Continuous with cranial
Thoracic Cavity
Separated from rest of cavities by a dome shaped diaphragm

Afforded some measure of protection by bony rib cage
Pelvic Cavity
Regon that is partially enclosed by a bony pelvis and contains reproductive organs, bladder and rectum

Tipped away from Abdominal Cavity from the perpendicular
Show all the abdominal quadrants
LU quadrant
Stomach
Spleen
Left lobe of liver
Body of pancreas
Left kidney and adrenal gland
Splenic flexure of colon
Parts of transverse and descending colon
LL quadrant
Important organs of the left lower quadrant include:

part of descending colon
sigmoid colon
left ovary
Fallopian tube
left uterine tube
RU quadrant
Important organs

Liver
Gall bladder with biliary tree
Duodenum
Head of pancreas

Hepatic flexure of colon
RL quandrant
Cecum
Appendix
Ascending Colon
Right ovary and Fallopian tube
Right ureter
Umbilical Region
Centermost region

Includes the Umbilicus
Epigastric Region
Overlies most of the stomach
Hypogastric region
Encompasses the pubic area
Iliac Region
Inguinal area

Lateral to the hypogastric region and overlying the superior parts of the hip bones
Lumbar Regions
Between the ribs and flaring portions of hip bones

Lateral to umbilical region
Hypochondriac Region
Flanking the epigastric region laterally and overlying the lower ribs.
Peritoneum region
Serosa lining of the abdominal cavity and its organs
Pleura (Lung)
Serosa lining Enclosing the lungs is the pleura
Pericardium
Serosa lining enclosing the heart
What qualifies as the integumentary system?
Skin
Hair
Sweat glands
What qualifies as the skeletal system?
Bones
Cartilage
Ligaments (Bone-Bone Connection)
What qualifies as the muscular system?
Skeletal Muscle
Tendons (Muscle-Bone Connection)
What qualifies as the nervous system?
Brain
Spinal Cord
Nerves
What qualifies as the endocrine system?
Pituitary gland
Thyroid Gland
Pancreas
Adrenal Gland
Gonads (Ovaries / Testes)
What qualifies as the cardiovascular system?
Heart
Blood Vessels
Blood
What qualifies as the lymphatic system / Immune System?
Spleen
Thymus
Lymphatic Vessels
Lymph Nodes
Tonsils
What qualifies as the Respiratory System?
Nasal Cavity
Larynx
Trachea
Bronchii
Lungs
What qualifies as the Digestive System?
Teeth
Tongue
Pharynx
Esophagus
Stomach
Small Intestine
Large Intestine
Liver
Gallbladder
Pancreas
What qualifies as the Urinary System?
Kidneys
Ureters
Urinary Bladder
Urethra
What qualifies as the Reproductive System?
Testes
Prostate Gland
Penis
Scrotum
Ovaries
Uterine tubes
Uterus
Vagina
Mammary Glands
Show Prophase
Show Metaphase
Show Anaphase
Show Telophase
Show Cytokinesis
What is a section in reference to anatomy?
Section = Cut
What type of shoes need to be worn in lab?
Closed toed shoes
If you have a tank top in lab, what must be worn?
Lab coat over tank tops and shorts that do not reach the knee
Is water allowed in lab? What about food or drink?
Nothing allowed
No food
No water
No drink
Where do you deposit broken glass?
Notify TA
Sweep up
Place in "Broken Glass Disposal"
What are the rules for using and discarding of scalpel blades?
NEVER force the blade onto the handle

Dispose in a sharps container
What is the rule for dissection instruments?
Thoroughly cleaned after each use

Spray and wipe clean with disinfectant spray
Where is tissue waste disposed into?
Only place in "Tissue waste disposal"

NO trash
NO gloves
NO broken glass
NO scalpel blades
What is the rule for the electrical cord on microscopes?
Always unwrap cord completely before plugging in microscope

Ensure no jewelry comes into contact with this

Unplug by pulling the plug not by tugging on cord
Where does liquid waste get disposed into?
Hazardous Waste Container
Where do you look for an unknown chemical in lab?
MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheets) for unknown chemicals
If you have a chemical spill, what is the length of time in which you should wash the area?
15 minutes
Are pets and minors allowed in the lab?
No
Before leaving lab what should always be done?
Wash hands and area around you