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What are the functions of the atria and ventricles of the heart?
Atria are the receiving chambers of the heart, and ventricles are the discharging chambers of the heart.
What coverings does the heart have? What is the heart's lining called?
Pericardium is two layers of fibrous tissue with a small space in between. Endocardium is the lining.
What are systole and diastole of the heart?
Systole is the contraction, and diastole is the relaxation of the atria and ventricle.
Can you describe the three major layers of a large blood vessel?
Tunica externa (outer layer of connective tissue fibers); tunica media (smooth muscle tissue in the middle); tunica intima (endothelial cells lining the arteries and veins)
What are capillaries?
Capillaries are the exchange vessels. They are microscopic and have only one wall—tunica intima—allowing substances to pass through quickly.
How do systemic and pulmonary circulations differ?
Systemic circulation is the pathway of blood from the left ventricle of the heart through the aorta and other arteries to all parts of the body. Pulmonary circulation is the pathway of blood from the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery to lung arterioles and capillaries. After the exchange of gases, blood is returned to the left atrium of the heart.
How is fetal circulation different from adult circulation?
The circulation in a fetus includes three structures that close at birth. The first structure is the ductus venosus (allows most of the blood to bypass the immature liver of the developing baby and empty directly into the inferior vena cava). The other two structures allow most of the blood to bypass the developing lungs: the foramen ovale (shunts blood from the right atrium to the left atrium) and ductus arteriosus (connects aorta and the pulmonary artery).
How does the blood pressure gradient explain blood flow?
When a blood pressure gradient is present, the blood circulates; conversely, when a blood pressure gradient is not present, blood does not circulate.
Name four factors that influence blood pressure.
Blood volume, strength of each heart contraction, heart rate, and the thickness of the blood
What are the places on your body that you can likely feel your pulse?
Temporal artery, carotid artery, brachial artery, radial artery, femoral artery, popliteal artery, dorsalis pedis
____ are the thicker chambers of the heart, which are sometimes called the discharging chambers.
The ____ are the thinner chambers, which are sometimes called the receiving chambers of the heart.
The ventricles of the heart are separated into right and left sides by the ____.
The heart valve located between the right atrium and the right ventricle is called the ____ valve.
tricuspid (right atrioventricular)
The term ____ refers to the volume of blood ejected from the ventricle during each beat.
The ____ are extensions of the atrioventricular fibers and cause the contraction of the ventricles.
The ____ are the microscopic blood vessels in which substances are exchanged between the blood and tissues.
Systemic circulation involves the moving of blood throughout the body; _____ involves moving the blood from the heart to the lungs and back.
The two structures in the developing fetus that allow most of the blood to bypass the lungs are the ____ and the ____.
foramen ovale, ductus arteriosus
The strength of the heart contraction and blood volume are two factors that influence blood pressure. Two other factors that influence blood pressure are ____ and _____.
blood viscosity, heart rate
Place the following structures in their proper order in blood flow through the heart.
a. Left atrium
b. Tricuspid valve (right atrioventricular valve)
c. Right ventricle
d. Pulmonary vein
e. Aortic semilunar valve
f. Mitral valve (left atrioventricular valve)
g. Left ventricle
h. pulmonary artery
i. right atrium
j. pulmonary semilunar valve.
1. Right atrium
2. Tricuspid valve (right atrioventricular valve)
3. Right ventricle
4. Pulmonary semilunar valve
5. Pulmonary artery
6. Pulmonary vein
7. Left atrium
8. Mitral valve (left atrioventricular valve)
9. Left ventricle
10. Aortic semilunar valve
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