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Chapter 12: The Cardiovascular System Questions 14th edition - Structure and Function of the body

What are the functions of the atria and ventricles of the heart?

Atria are the receiving chambers of the heart, and ventricles are the discharging chambers of the heart.

What coverings does the heart have? What is the heart's lining called?

Pericardium is two layers of fibrous tissue with a small space in between. Endocardium is the lining.

What are systole and diastole of the heart?

Systole is the contraction, and diastole is the relaxation of the atria and ventricle.

What are the two major "circulations" of the body?

Pulmonary and systemic circulation

What structure is the natural "pacemaker" of the heart?

Sinoatrial node

What information is in an electrocardiogram?

Graphic record of the heart's electrical activity

Can you describe the three major layers of a large blood vessel?

Tunica externa (outer layer of connective tissue fibers); tunica media (smooth muscle tissue in the middle); tunica intima (endothelial cells lining the arteries and veins)

What are capillaries?

Capillaries are the exchange vessels. They are microscopic and have only one wall—tunica intima—allowing substances to pass through quickly.

How do systemic and pulmonary circulations differ?

Systemic circulation is the pathway of blood from the left ventricle of the heart through the aorta and other arteries to all parts of the body. Pulmonary circulation is the pathway of blood from the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery to lung arterioles and capillaries. After the exchange of gases, blood is returned to the left atrium of the heart.

What is the hepatic portal circulation?

Route of blood flow through the liver

How is fetal circulation different from adult circulation?

The circulation in a fetus includes three structures that close at birth. The first structure is the ductus venosus (allows most of the blood to bypass the immature liver of the developing baby and empty directly into the inferior vena cava). The other two structures allow most of the blood to bypass the developing lungs: the foramen ovale (shunts blood from the right atrium to the left atrium) and ductus arteriosus (connects aorta and the pulmonary artery).

How does the blood pressure gradient explain blood flow?

When a blood pressure gradient is present, the blood circulates; conversely, when a blood pressure gradient is not present, blood does not circulate.

Name four factors that influence blood pressure.

Blood volume, strength of each heart contraction, heart rate, and the thickness of the blood

Does a person's blood pressure stay the same all the time?

No, it fluctuates.

What are the places on your body that you can likely feel your pulse?

Temporal artery, carotid artery, brachial artery, radial artery, femoral artery, popliteal artery, dorsalis pedis

____ are the thicker chambers of the heart, which are sometimes called the discharging chambers.


The ____ are the thinner chambers, which are sometimes called the receiving chambers of the heart.


Cardiac muscle tissue is called _____.


The ventricles of the heart are separated into right and left sides by the ____.

interventricular septum

The layer of tissue lining the interior of the heart chambers is called the _____.


Another term for the visceral pericardium is the ____.


Contraction of the heart is called ____.


Relaxation of the heart is called ___.


The heart valve located between the right atrium and the right ventricle is called the ____ valve.

tricuspid (right atrioventricular)

The term ____ refers to the volume of blood ejected from the ventricle during each beat.

stroke volume

The ____ is the pacemaker of the heart and causes the contraction of the atria.

sinoatrial node

The ____ are extensions of the atrioventricular fibers and cause the contraction of the ventricles.

Purkinje fibers

The ECG tracing that occurs when the ventricles depolarize is called the ____.

QRS complex

The ECG tracing that occurs when the atria depolarize is called the _____.

P wave

The _____ are the blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart.


The _____ are the blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart.


The ____ are the microscopic blood vessels in which substances are exchanged between the blood and tissues.


The innermost layer of tissue in an artery is called the _____.

tunica intima

The outermost layer of tissue in an artery is called the ____.

tunica adentitia

Systemic circulation involves the moving of blood throughout the body; _____ involves moving the blood from the heart to the lungs and back.

pulmonary circulation

The two structures in the developing fetus that allow most of the blood to bypass the lungs are the ____ and the ____.

foramen ovale, ductus arteriosus

The strength of the heart contraction and blood volume are two factors that influence blood pressure. Two other factors that influence blood pressure are ____ and _____.

blood viscosity, heart rate

Place the following structures in their proper order in blood flow through the heart.
a. Left atrium
b. Tricuspid valve (right atrioventricular valve)
c. Right ventricle
d. Pulmonary vein
e. Aortic semilunar valve
f. Mitral valve (left atrioventricular valve)
g. Left ventricle
h. pulmonary artery
i. right atrium
j. pulmonary semilunar valve.

1. Right atrium
2. Tricuspid valve (right atrioventricular valve)
3. Right ventricle
4. Pulmonary semilunar valve
5. Pulmonary artery
6. Pulmonary vein
7. Left atrium
8. Mitral valve (left atrioventricular valve)
9. Left ventricle
10. Aortic semilunar valve

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