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25 terms

MEIOSIS AND MITOSIS QUIZ

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Mitosis
2 genetically identical diploid cells
Meiosis
4 genetically different haploid cells
Fertilization
process in sexual reproduction in which male and female reproductive cells join to form a new cell
chromosome
a threadlike body in the cell nucleus that carries the genes in a linear order
chromatid
one of two identical sister parts of a duplicated chromosome
centromere
the area where the chromatids of a chromosome are attached
homologous
chromosomes that each have a corresponging chromosome from the opposite-sex parent.
gamete
specialized cell involved in sexual reproduction
sperm
male gamete (haploid, N)
egg
female gemete (diploid, 2N)
haploid (N)
a cell that contains only a single set of chromosomes and therefore only a single set of genes.
diploid (2N)
a cell that contains 2 copies of each chromosome
spindle
the structure that pulls apart the chromosomes during mitosis
centriole
anchors that pull chromosomes apart
tetrad
a cell containing 4 chromatids that formed during meiosis
interphase
growth , replicating of dna, and preparation for mitosis
prophase
1st part of mitosis, chromosomes condense in the middle
metaphase
2nd, chromosomes line up along the middle (x's)
anaphase
3rd, in amazing synchronization, chromosomes pull apart
telophase
4th and final stage of mitosis, this is when the chromosomes gather at the poles
cytokinesis
animal cell: cells pull apart. Plane cell: new cell wall grows
cell plate
like cartilage for human bones, it is the start of a new cell wall for plants.
crossing-over
when homologous chromosomes swap dna while in tetrads
gene linkage
the farther apart genes are on chromosome, the more likely they are to be seperated by a crossover in meiosis
gene map
use recombination rates to MAKE gene map