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Terms in this set (45)
challenged the belief in progress and the general faith in the rational human mind, German philosopher, (1844-1900) Never a systematic philosopher, wrote as a prophet in a provocative and poetic style. His first great work in 1872 argued that the West had overemphasized rationality and stifled the passion and animal instinct that drive human activity and true creativity. He claimed that Christianity embodied a "slave morality," which glorified weakness, envy, and mediocrity.
A philosophy that sees meaning in only those beliefs that can be empirically proven, and that therefore rejects most of the concerns of traditional philosophy form the existence of God to the meaning of happiness as nonsense
The outlook of logical empiricism began primarily with this Austrian philosopher (1889-1951), who later immigrated to England, where he trained his disciples. he argued in hisTractatus Logico-Philosophicus (Essay on Logical Philosophy) in 1922 that philosophy is only the logical clarification of thoughts, The great philosophical issues of the ages-God, freedom, morality, and so on-are quite literally senseless, a great waste of time, for statements about them can neither be tested by scientific experiments nor demonstrated by the logics of morality.
A philosophy that stresses the meaningless of existence and the importance of individual in searching for moral values in an uncertain world
His famous theory of special relativity postulated that time and space are relative to the viewpoint of the observer and that only the speed of light is constant for all frames of reference to the universe. The closed framework of Newtonian physics was quite unlimited compared to that of Einsteinian physics, which unified an apparently infinite universe with the incredibly small, fast-moving subatomic world. Moreover, his theory said that both matter and energy are interchangeable.
(1856-1939), the Viennese founder of psychoanalysis, formulated the most striking analysis of the explosive dynamics of the family. A physician by training, Freud began his career treating mentally ill patients. He noted that the hysteria of his patients appeared to originate in bitter early-childhood experiences wherein the child had been obliged to repress their feelings. developed id, ego, and superego
A label given to the artistic and cultural movements of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, which were typified by radical experimentation that challenged traditional forms of artistic expression
The principle that buildings, like industrial products, should serve as well as possible the purpose for which they were made, without excessive ornamentation
A German interdisciplinary school of fine and applied arts that brought together many leading modern architects, designers, and theatrical innovators
By 1890, when impressionism was finally established, a few artists known as postimpressionists, or sometimes as expressionists, were already striking out in new directions. After 1905 art increasingly took on a nonrepresentational, abstract character, a development that reached its high point after World War II. Fascination with form, as opposed to light, was the characteristic of postimpressionism and expressionism
Dadaism attacked all accepted standards of art and behavior, delighting in outrageous conduct. Its name, from the French word dada, meaning "hobbyhorse," if deliberately nonsensical
Triumph of The Will
Leni Riefenstahl directed this documentary on Nazi propaganda in 1934.
Italian inventor who developed radio sets in the 1880s and the vacuum tube in 1904 which made primitive transmissions of speech and music.
John Maynard Keyes
English economist who eloquently denounced the Treaty of Versailles in his book The Economic Consequences of the Peace 1919.
Young German republic wracked by inflation and political assassinations and motivated by hostility and arrogance proposing a moratorium on reparations for three years.
He called off passive resistance in the Ruhr and in October agreed in principle to pay reparations but asked for a re-examination of Germany's ability to pay. Poincaré accepted. His hard line was becoming increasingly unpopular with French citizens, and it was hated in Britain and the United States. The moderate businessmen who tended to dominate the various German coalition governments were convinced that economic prosperity demanded good relations with the Western powers, and they supported parliamentary government at home. Streseman himself was a man of this class, and he was the key figure in every government until his death in 1929
War reparations agreement that reduced Germany's yearly payments, made payments dependent on economic prosperity, and granted large U.S. loans to promote recovery.
In 1928 fifteen counties signed the Kellogg-Briand Pact, initiated by French prime minister Aristide Briand and U.S. secretary of state Frank B. Kellogg. This multinational pact "condemned and renounced war as an instrument of national policy." These signing states agreed to settle international disputes peacefully. Often seen as idealistic nonsense because it made no provisions for action in case of war actually occurred, the pact was still a positive step
Shattering economic prosperity, it presented Hitler with a fabulous opportunity. Unemployment boomed, and industrial production fell by half. No factor contributed more to Hilter's success than the economic crisis.
Inspired by Roosevelt's New Deal, the Popular Front encouraged the union movement and launched a far-reaching program of social reform, complete with paid vacations and a forty-hour workweek. Popular with workers and the lower middle class, these, measures were quickly sabotaged by rapid inflation and cries of revolution from fascists and frightened conservatives. Wealthy people sneaked their money out of the country, labor unrest grew, and France entered a severe financial crisis. The Popular front quickly collapsed after Blum resigned in 1937
Thus the absolute state was not the same as a totalitarian state. Totalitarianism is a 20th century phenomenon; it seeks to direct all facets of a state's culture. Totalitarian rule is a total regulation.
Nazism had fascist origins, but German fascism in power ultimately presented only superficial similarities with fascism in Italy. Nazi fascism, racism and unlimited aggression made war inevitable
A pseudoscientific doctrine that maintains that the selective breeding of human beings can improve the general characteristics of a national population, which helped inspire Nazi ideas about "race and space" and ultimately contributed to the Holocaust.
Charismatic leader of totalitarian state Russia in favor of communism and fascism.
The first five-year plan to increase industrial and agricultural production was extremely ambitious, but Stalin wanted to erase the NEP, spur the economy, and catch up with the West
New Economic Policy
Re-established limited economic freedom in an attempt to rebuild agriculture and industry. Lenin substituted a grain tax on the country's peasant producers, who were permitted to sell their surpluses in free markets
Collectivization of Agriculture
The forcible consolidation of individual peasant farms into large state-controlled enterprises in the Soviet Union under Stalin
Better-off peasants who were stripped of land and livestock under Stalin and were generally not permitted to join collective farms; many of them starved or were deported to forced-labor camps for "re-education"
A huge State Planning Commission that was created to set production goals and control deliveries of raw and finished materials.
A series of spectacular public show trials in which false evidence, often gathered through torture, was used to incriminate party administrators and Red Army leaders.
Claimed he was striving to build a new community on a national not international level in Italy. Based off of extreme nationalism and militarism his followers knows as "Fascists".
Mussolini's private militia that destroyed socialist newspapers, union halls, and Socialist Party headquarters, eventually pushing Socialists out of the city governments of northern Italy
A 1929 agreement that recognized the Vatican as an independent state, with Mussolini agreeing to give the church heavy financial support in return for public support from the pope.
A movement and political party driven by extreme nationalism and racism, led by Adolf Hitler; its adherents ruled Germany from 1933 to 1945 and forced Europe into World War II
Dropped out of high school developed social Darwinist beliefs against Jews with anti-Semitism and national socialism
An act pushed through the Reichstag by the Nazis that gave Hitler absolute dictatorial power for 4 years
The British policy toward Germany prior to World War II that aimed at granting Hitler whatever he wanted, including western Czechoslovakia, in order to avoid war
Established by Italy and Germany which Japan later joined as alliances in 1936.
General who led a Fascist Army with the support of Germany and Italy in the Spanish Civil war in 1936-1939. He and his army defeated the democratically elected republican government in Spain
Conference held in 1938 between Britain and France prior to WWII in which Britain appeased Hitler's demands and granted him access to Sudetenland.
British Prime Minister who agreed that Germany should take over Sudetenland. He told the British that he had secured peace with honor...and peace for our time when he had in fact appeased Hitler. He also declared that Britain and France would fight if Germany were to attack Poland.
The pact that Hitler made with Stalin that either of their nations would remain neutral if the other went to war. Was broken by Hitler when he invaded the Soviet Union.
Hitler's program based on racial imperialism, which gave preferential treatment to the Nordic peoples; the French an "inferior" Latin people, occupied a middle position; and Slavs and Jews were treated harshly as "subhumans"
The systematic effort of the Nazi state to exterminate all European Jews and other groups deemed racially inferior during the Second World War
Death squads that followed the German armies and killed about 2 million civilians.
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