Embracing irrational, disorderly, aberrant, and even violent social interventions. Emerged as an offshoot of Dada born from the mind of a poet Breton. Published the Manifesto of Surrealism, reflecting Freudian conception of the human mind. Sought to explore humanity's most base, irrational, and forbidden sexual desires, secret fantasies, and violent instincts by freeing the conscious mind from reason. Surrealists developed strategies to liberate the unconscious using dream analysis, free association, automatic writing, word games, and hypnotic trances. Studied acts of criminal madness and the female mind in particular, believing the latter to be weaker and more irrational than the male mind. Only way to improve the war-sick society of the 20s was to discover the more intense surreality that transcended rational constraint. Remains one of the most controversial works of art in the 20th c. It is transgressive. Incites laughter, anger, embarrassment, and disgust, by openly referring to private bathroom activities, to human carnality and vulnerability. Questions the very essence of what constitutes a work of art. Most avant-garde artists agreed that a work of art need be neither descriptive not well-crafted, but before 1917, none would have argued, like Duchamp, that art is primarily conceptual. Updated the practice into modern terms by arguing that art objects might not only be crafted by others, but that the objects of art could actually be mass-produced for the artist by industry. Simultaneously creates a commentary on consumption and on the irrationality of the modern age by arguing that the "ready-made" work of art, as a manufactured object, simply bypasses the craft tradition, qualifying as a work of art through human conceptualization rather than by human facture. Sought to accomplish this by eliminating everything sensual or subjective from paintings. Uses three primary colors, three neutral, and a grid of horizontal and vertical lines in his search for the essence of higher beauty and the balances of forces. Opposing lines and colors balance a harmony of opposites that he called a "dynamic equilibrium" and which he achieved by carefully plotting an arrangement of colors, shapes, and visual weights grouped asymmetrically around the edge of a canvas, with the center acting as a blank white fulcrum. Hoped that De Stijl would have applications in the real world by creating an entirely new visual environment for living, designed according to the rules of a "universal beauty" that, when perfectly balanced, would bring equilibrium and purity to the world. Hoped to be the world's last artist, because, while art brought humanity to everyday life, when "universal beauty" infused all aspects of life, there would no longer be a need for art.