50 terms

Radiation Biology - RADD 5001

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Terms in this set (...)

radiobiology
the study of ionizing radiation on living things
0.4 mGy
More than what amount of thyroid radiation in pregnant was associated with an increased risk of low birth weight babies
>100 mSv
what dosage of X-rays given over a prolonged period of time produce deleterious effects in the human DNA, and is also considered carcinogenic
hereditary effects
cancer
in utero effects
what are some of the effects of low dose radiation on the human body
cell death
whole body effects
what are some of the effects of high dose radiation on the human body
deterministic effects
stochastic effects
what are the two divisions of radiation effects
deterministic effect
type of radiation effect that results in cell death and can lead to loss of organ/system function
stochastic effects
type of radiation effects that result in mutation, having carcinogenic and hereditary effects
DNA
what biological molecule in the human body is most disrupted by radiation
double stranded breaks
what type of mutation is responsible for cell killing, carcinogenesis, heritable effects
radiation induced cancer
what is the primary risk from dental radiation
no
does dental radiation have deterministic or stochastic effects
latent period
the time interval between irradiation and the development of an observed biological effect
total dose
acute/chronic exposure
what are the two important radiation factors that influence the effects
type/sensitivity of tissue
age of host
what are the two important host factors that influence the effects of radiation
law of bergonie
law that states the most radiosensitive cells have a high mitotic rate, high future mitotic rate, are primitive in differentiation
lymphocyte
what is the exception to the law of bergonie
children
what age group is more sensitive to radiation
10x's
how much more are children sensitive to radiation than adults
mA (current)
exposure time
what two things are directly proportional to the dosage when all other factors are held constant
5kV
and increase in ____ approximately doubles the dose
> 50 mSv
what acute dose of radiation is associated with an increase in risk of cancer
dose and dose rate effectiveness factor (DDREF)
the extent to which a given dose of X-rays may be assumed to decrease in effectiveness at low dose rates
true
t/f: xray units are equipped to remove low energy radiation and reduce skin dose
true
t/f: dental radiation has less radio biologic effect than other types of radiation
true
t/f: X-rays are poor producers of double stranded breaks in DNA
exposure
the amount of radiation that exits the unit and reaches the patient
roentgen
what is the traditional unit of exposure
gray
what is the SI unit of exposure
absorbed dose
a measure of the energy absorbed per unit mass of matter
degree of attenuation
what is the absorbed dose proportional to
gray
what is the SI unit for absorbed dose
rad
what is the traditional unit for absorbed dose
100 rad
how many rads are in 1 gray
equivalent dose
measures the biological effectiveness of radiation
neutrons
if one individual is irradiated with amount of X-rays and another individual is irradiated with the same amount of neutrons, which is more damaging?
equivalent dose
with regards to dental X-ray exposure, the absorbed does equals __________.
radiation weighing factors x absorbed dose
equivalent dose equation
Sv
when the absorbed dose is given in Gray, then the equivalent dose is given in what unit?
rem
when the absorbed dose is given in rad, then the equivalent dose is given in what unit?
100 rem
how many rem are in 1 Sv
micro and milli Sv
effective doses from conventional dental X-ray units are on the order of what magnitude?
effective dose
the summation of all the equivalent doses of the body
rem
what is the traditional unit for effective dose
effective dose
natural background radiation is measured in what
3.1 mSv
average annual background radiation in the US
8.5 uSv
average daily background radiation in the US
radon gas
what is the largest source of background radiation, contributing 2/3 of the annual dose
20 days
an FMX is equivalent to how many days of background radiation
2 days
a Pan is equivalent to how many days of background radiation