Anth 280 Final
Terms in this set (52)
Objectivity, ideology, and the media
Objectively: Politically neutral, presents a balanced viewpoint
Ideology: Promotes values, attitudes opinions, or beliefs (propaganda)
Is complete objectivity even possible?
"Objectivity journalism" often seen as a unicorn
Media and Representation
Media represents and thus creates the reality we perceive - even when "objective"
Media power both repressive and productive
'Stringers' vs. 'Parachutists'
Stringers: local who knows culture and delivers breaking news
Parachutists: a professional/celebrity who 'parachute' into a location (don't know much about local)
Journalists embed with military in 2003 in Iraq
They get protection and access to news, but what they publish is censored by the military
Is it really objective?
"In bedded" journalists
Nordstrom's shadow networks
Obvious on the ground but hard to grasp from a distance
Extra-state exchange systems circulating a wide range of commodities
Estimates of extra-state activity high
Wide range of contraband commodities
Protecting neat picture of world to further profit/power interests?
Those who are profiting want war to remain neat!
Outside of state control and taxation
Are shadow networks 'informal economies'?
Appears individual and 'local' but in reality 'global' and connected to large international networks
Nordstrom use the term 'nonformal' rather than 'informal'
-During the 60s and 70s they became a cheap weapon of choice for low intensity conflicts
-Popular with insurgent groups and state forces
-Easy to manufacture/modify locally
-Low initial investment
-Smart (self-destructing) models invented
Alternate economic systems (hawala, bitcoin)
Alternative economies run outside of national banks.
Hawala: MENA and India. Used by families, businesses, and criminals. A person (hawala) cuts deals and provides guarantees. Transactions are accomplished by communication and trading relationships; promises, not funds, move
Bitcoin: Software based online pay system. Entirely anonymous. Transaction with no middle men and not subject to regulations. Could be used for ill purposes.
Genocide as STATE action
'A product of order, authoritarianism, decades of modern political theorizing and indoctrination and of the most meticulously administered in history'
High degree of organization and justification not anarchy/collapse state
Moral edges of war (genocide, insurgency/counterinsurgency, civilian suffering)
Ethical limits of conflict - civilian targets, terrorism/counterinsurgency, genocide and annihilation
Question of when to intervene
Question of intervention?
US intervention related to 'national interest' NOT moral responsibility
"Whether we get involved in the end must depend on the cumulative weight of the American interests at stake."
1994; Hutus kill Tutsis
Rate of death 5x higher than Nazi death camps
Low tech killing but high tech organization
Episode in longer colonial history
Genocide as organized action, state action, symbolic action
Rwandan state organized genocide as a political plan. State was meticulously administered - NOT collapsed/Hobbesian
Symbolic in mutilation of bodies. Purposefully killed pregnant women or raped women to give them AIDs
Genocide in modern time is NOT
Hobbesian breakdown; it is a form of state action that is highly orchestrated, organized, and also highly symbolic
Problem of evil and studies on obedience (Milgram, Stanford prison experiment)
Evil is banal! Per Hannah Arendt on Eichmann trials
-Potential Eichmann in all of us?
Milgram shows that people are willing to keep shocking until the last moment - take orders
Stanford shows that people can internalize the roles and change personas quickly
Why is displacement a contemporary problem?
-Societies now settled territories (world of nation-states, little 'free' space)
-Fear of disease
Displacement is not only a humanitarian concerns
but it is also a political one!
Refugees, internally displaced persons (IDPs)
Instability of refugees is perceived as a political problem - who is responsible for them? Will they threaten the local population? Leads to international law protecting them
IDPs are often women and children and are often caught in the crossfire. IDPs on rise while refugees on decline
Refugees and IDPs put in camps, which meet basic human needs but not much else.
Liisa Malkki's study of Burundian Hutu refugees in Tanzania (Mishamo and Kigoma camps)
Mishamo: Physically isolated, so people there formalize their history and it takes on mythical qualities. They live in the past and never interact with non-Hutus
Kigoma: Integrated into townships; live alongside non-refugees. They see a future for themselves
Mishamo camp:' Mythico-history' & violence; sense of history here
-Lived meanings for specific people (versus investigating truth claims)
-Mythico-history (a mix of myth and history of the past) = moral narrative of the past
-Regimented space, separation, maintenance of identity, permanent refugee, town as threat, commerce = threat
People become more consciously 'Hutu'
They focus on the past and returning home
Kigoma Town: 'Pragmatics of identity'
-diffused space, plural present/future, integration, assimilation possible, potential immigrant, camp as limitation, commerce = opportunity, practice better lives
People become less consciously 'Hutu'
Focus on the present and getting on with life in Tanzania
Malkki's ethnography suggests that
different forms of camp life can shape refugee integration and identity in distinct ways
Think of war as a
What is 'peace'?
Is usually conceived through war but it is a political and social process: NOT simple 'declared'
Like war it is a group action, involving social forms
Like war peace involves multiple scale from int'l diplomacy and restorative justice to everyday efforts
What does peace look like?
People using physical body in public space:
-disrupt politics as normal
-think about different kind of body and state
How is inter-group peace maintained through everyday practice amidst civic strife?
Peace is a daily achievement
A relentless everyday work
Case 1: Multi-ethnic, middle-class, high-rise apartment building in Karachi, Pakistan
A 'relentless daily labor':
-women's exchanges b/w households - visiting, borrowing, helping
-management of male anger as creative labor
Case 2: Truth, reconciliation and restorative justice
International intervention more common AFTER genocide
What is UN peacekeeping?
See themselves as mostly post-conflict peace building and preventing relapse to conflict that involves three principles:
(1) "consent of the parties"
(3) Non-use of force except in self-defense and defense of the mandate
Legacies of war and genocide violence in the present (Srebrenica, Okinawa)
Hard to move on when you have no closure from the past. Forced to live alongside perpetrators.
The role of non-human things in human experience of war and peace (Okinawa)
Past lives alongside present in Okinawa, so if the war lives on, will there every truly be peace?
Embedded within population
Irregular military force
'Asymmetric' or nonconventional warfare
-guerrilla tactics vs. "total" war
Insurgency, counterinsurgency, terrorism
Insurgency: An organized movement aimed at the overthrow of a constituted gov't through the use of subversion and armed conflict
Counterinsurgency: Based on "Battle of Algiers;" aims to extinguish rebellions and restabilize gov't
Terrorism: Actions with the immediate goals of spreading terror
--> Insurgents can use terrorism as a tactic
Battle of Algiers
Algerian war (1954-62)
-Nationalist, anti-colonial struggle
-FNL (National Liberation Front)
-Neo-realist film staged in the aftermath of the war
-Banned in France but celebrated in Algeria
-Influential in 1960s; leftist circles
"Cultural turn" in the US military
US military increasingly interested in the significance of culture and how cultural awareness can make war more humane/less violent
Military interest in culture
-Language, 'cultural awareness/sensitivity'
-'Productive' relationships between military personnel and locals
HOWEVER, goals remains to achieve military objectives
'Cultural' stimulation: 29 Palms, CA
US largest urban warfare training facility
'Interactive realism' in mock villages:
-Stimulation of conflict scenarios
-Shift from kinetic to 'cultural turn'
-Training...but also psychological preparation? Supposed to help actual combat
Human Terrain System and ethical debates
Highly-trained anthropologists who deploy with the military "to provide analytic reporting with advice to commanders."
For: More 'humane' war, may help reduce deaths and to be disengaged from the military entirely is a worse alternative (lesser of two evils), work within an imperfect system to improve it
Against: Compromises research ethics, say it is a weaponization of culture (culture being use to make military more efficient), that it goes against the AAA code of ethics in "do no harm to research subjects", and it is a mislaid question (problem of occupation, we are not addressing the problem of cultural consideration)
UN peacekeeping forces
Financially supported by rich western countries but manned by people from developing world.
Often poorly paid and willing to engage in side activities
Allegations of sexual abuse --> all-woman force in Liberia
PTSD (clinical definition of, Finley's approach to, forms of treatment for)
1. Reliving the experience
2. Avoiding triggers of experience
3. Emotional numbing
Finley approaches as: Wants to understand the multiple realities of PTSD, which is just as much a political issue as a medical issue
Treated with non-drugs, such as yoga and Prolonged Exposure Therapy (PET) where they revisit a traumatic memory with the attempt to reduce distress and the avoidance of trauma reminders
Drug treatments for veterans at home, for soldiers in war
Drugs widely prescribed to active duty soldiers designed to get them back into combat quickly; used at home to ease burden on VA system
Effects of these cocktails still unknown
Veteran's challenges transitioning to civilian life
Intensity of combat zone vs. home; deployment experiences living on at home; injury/rehab; social role/identity after active duty service; impact on family, future employment prospects; etc
Changing social role and identity
-Military as "Total institution" (Affects all aspect of life, once needed permission to marry, continuing tension over sexuality, gender integration)
-Hierarchical, authoritarian and paternalistic
-Also a de facto 'welfare state' (services for members)
Hierarchical, authoritarian and paternalistic
-Unlike liberalism; not focused on 'choice'
-Based on civic republicanism - you have a responsibility to the nation and that means suppression of individual choices
Battlemind Army training program
Designed at Walter Reed to be "armor for the mind" but can be maladaptive upon returning home
Ex: Buddies --> withdrawal: In combat, no one understands your experience except those you fight with; at home, you don't think your family can understand
New technologies for war and peace, new questions of law and ethics
War: Drones with the intent of targeted killing, not just surveillance; autonomous weapons systems (AMS) and artificial intelligence (AI). Both raise question of accountability; can robots act in accordance with international human rights accords?
Peace: Crowdsourcing, using communication technology to foster peace
Blurring of boundaries (between "war" and "peace," "civilian" and "military" etc)
Peace is usually viewed through the context of war or though of as "justice" but it is not either. War and peace coexist, just as civilian and military overlap