Terms in this set (50)

• The Phoenicians were a seafaring people from present-day Lebanon
• The Phoenicians established cities throughout the Mediterranean and were traders in the region
• But the most important legacy (handed down from the past) of the Phoenicians their development of an alphabetic writing system that was adapted by the Greeks
• In an alphabetic writing system, each letter represents a sound and thus fewer symbols are needed for writing than when every word has its own character - yes, to this day, when children are taught to read in English (the alphabetic writing system adopted from the Greeks who adopted it from the Phoenicians), they are taught the sounds of the letters - this method for teaching reading is called phonics after the Phoenicians
• Their major cities were Tyre, Sidon, Byblos, and Arwad - all were fiercely independent, rival cities and, unlike the neighboring inland states, the Phoenicians represented a confederation of maritime traders rather than a defined country
• The most significant Phoenician contribution was an alphabetic writing system
• The Phoenician alphabetic writing system became the root of the Western alphabets when the Greeks adopted it
• The main natural resources of the Phoenician cities in the eastern Mediterranean were the prized cedars of Lebanon and murex shells used to make the purple dye
• The name Phoenician, used to describe these people in the first millennium B.C.E., is a Greek invention, from the word phoinix, possibly signifying the color purple-red and perhaps an allusion to their production of a highly prized purple dye
Chinggis Khan or Genghis Khan
• Between 1206 and his death in 1227, the Mongol leader Genghis Khan conquered nearly 12 million square miles of territory - more than any individual in history
• Chinggis Khan was proclaimed leader of the Mongols at a tribal meeting known as a "kurultai" - while "Khan" is a traditional title meaning "leader" or "ruler," historians are still unsure of the origins of "Genghis" - it may have may have meant "ocean" or "just," but in context it is usually translated as "supreme ruler" or "universal ruler"
• Genghis Khan often gave other kingdoms a chance to peacefully submit to Mongol rule, but he didn't hesitate to bring down the sword on any society that resisted
• The Mongols were skilled warriors on horseback - their cavalry was unrivaled
• The Great Khan had a keen eye for talent, and he usually promoted his officers on skill and experience rather than class, ancestry or even past allegiances
• One famous example of this belief in meritocracy came during a 1201 battle against the rival Taijut tribe, when Genghis was nearly killed after his horse was shot out from under him with an arrow - when he later addressed the Taijut prisoners and demanded to know who was responsible, one soldier bravely stood up and admitted to being the shooter - stirred by the archer's boldness, Genghis made him an officer in his army and later nicknamed him "Jebe," or "arrow," in honor of their first meeting on the battlefield - along with the famed general Subutai, Jebe would go on to become one of the Mongols' greatest field commanders during their conquests in Asia and Europe
• Unlike many empire builders, Genghis Khan embraced the diversity of his newly conquered territories - he passed laws declaring religious freedom for all and even granted tax exemptions to places of worship - this tolerance had a political side - the Khan knew that happy subjects were less likely to rebel - but the Mongols also had an exceptionally liberal attitude towards religion
• Along with the bow and the horse, the Mongols most potent weapon may have been their vast communication network - one of his earliest decrees as Khan involved the formation of a mounted courier service known as the "Yam" - it consisted of a well-organized series of post houses and way stations strung out across the whole of the Empire - by stopping to rest or take on a fresh mount every few miles, official riders could often travel as far as 200 miles a day - the system allowed goods and information to travel with unprecedented speed, but it also acted as the eyes and ears of the Khan - the Yam also helped protect foreign dignitaries and merchants during their travels
• Sikhism is a religion that developed in northern India - a region where Hindus and Muslims lived
• The Sikh faith began in the 15th century when Guru Nanak began teaching a faith that was quite distinct from Hinduism and Islam yet influenced by both religions
• Like Hindus, Sikhs have the beliefs of karma and reincarnation
• Like Muslims, Sikhs are monotheists
• One morning, when he was twenty-eight years old, Nanak went down to the river to bathe and meditate - it was said that he was gone for three days and when he reappeared, it was believed that he was filled with the spirit of God
• It was then that Guru Nanak began his missionary work and the religion of Sikhism was born
• Sikhism is a monotheistic religion, and the basic Sikh belief is represented in the phrase Ik Onkar meaning "One God"
• Sikhism was founded in the Punjab region in India in the 15th century by Guru Nanak Dev
• Sikhism broke from Hinduism due, in part, to its rejection of the caste system
• The primary source of Scripture for Sikhs is the Guru Granth Sahib, regarded as the living Guru, after the final Guru in human form, Guru Gobind Singh, passed away
• A Sikh place of worship is known as the gurdwara - the word gurdwara means "doorway to God"
• The Five Ks are the articles of faith that Sikhs wear as ordered by the tenth Guru, Guru Gobind Singh
• The Five Ks are Kesh or unshorn long hair, a kangha or a small wooden comb meant to keep the hair combed twice a day, a kara or an iron bangle to be worn on the hand used most, a kachera is a specific undergarment for modesty, and a kirpan or short dagger
• Sikhs believe in defending the right of all peoples to religious freedom
• The Mongols conquered the largest contiguous empire in world history due to being highly skilled warriors on horseback and highly disciplined soldiers
• The Mongols used psychological warfare to frighten their enemies into submission
• Yes, the Mongols were successful at conquest because they adopted advanced technology quickly, they organized their armies efficiently, and they were talented cavalrymen or warriors on horseback
• Chinggis Khan's organized units of soldiers were based on the principle of ten
• He organized his people into units of ten, a hundred, a thousand, and ten thousand, and the head of a unit of ten thousand would have a strong personal relationship with Chinggis himself
• That kind of loyalty was to be extremely important in Chinggis's rise to power and in his ability to maintain authority over all the various segments of his domain
• Chinggis's military tactics showcased his superiority in warfare
• One particularly effective tactic Chinggis liked to use was the feigned withdrawal: Deep in the throes of a battle his troops would withdraw, pretending to have been defeated
• As the enemy forces pursued the troops that seemed to be fleeing, they would quickly realize that they'd fallen into a trap, as whole detachments of men in armor or cavalries would suddenly appear and overwhelm them
• Another key tactic was the use of the horse in warfare
• The Mongols were superior warriors and conquered a vast empire stretching from the Pacific Ocean to the Black Sea
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