AP World History Unit 1-2 Part 4
Terms in this set (29)
Cyrus the Great
definition- king of Persia, united the persian empire (circa 600-529 BC)
significance- founder of the Persian empire
definition- Culture derived from the Greek civilization that flourished between 800 and 400 B.C.E.
significance- Greek culture spread throughout the Mediterranean world
definition- Greek culture blended with Egyptian, Persian and Indian ideas, as a result of Alexander the Great's Empire.
significance- spread Greek influence
definition- city-state form of government typical of Greek political organization from 800 to 400 B.C.E.
significance- power centralized with local city government
definition- Athenian philosopher (ca. 470-399 B.C.E.) who shifted the emphasis of philosophical discussion to ethics and human behavior.
significance- taught Plato and developed what is now called the socratic method of teaching
definition- citizens have a direct vote on laws and how the government operates
significance- used in ancient greece
definition- Athenian leader noted for advancing democracy
significance- promoted democracy
definition- A series of wars between Greek city-states and the Persian Empire (5th century B.C.).
significance- Greek victory led into Greeces golden age
definition- war from 431 to 404 B.C.E. between Athens and Sparta for domination in Greece
significance- Spartans won but failed to achieve political unification in Greece
definition- kingdom of northern Greece
definition- ruled Macedon from 359 to 336 B.C.E
significance- founder of centralized kingdom; conquered Greece
Alexander the Great
definition- son and successor of Philip II; conquered Persian empire and advanced to borders of India
significance- attempted to combine Greek and Persian culture.
definition- Greek philosopher; taught that knowledge was based upon observation of phenomena in material world
significance- teacher of Alexander
definition-The period from 507 to 31 B.C.E., during which Rome was largely governed by the aristocratic Roman Senate.
significance- citizens voted representatives into power
definition-An empire established by Augustus in 27 BC and divided in AD 395 .
significance- at its peak lands in Europe and Africa and Asia were ruled by ancient Rome.
definition- the wealthy class in Roman society; landowners
definition- ordinary roman citizens
definition-two chief executives of the Roman republic
significance- there where two unless there was an emergency and one could be chosen as dictator
definition- plebeian officials elected annually during the Roman republic
definition-general responsible for the conquest of Gaul; brought army back to Rome and overthrew republic
significance- assassinated in 44 B.C.E. by conservative senators
Octavian (Augustus Caesar)
definition- later took name of Augustus; Julius Caesar's grandnephew and adopted son; defeated conservative senators after Caesar's assassination
significance- became first Roman emperor.
definition- Roman emperor of 284 C.E. Attempted to deal with fall of Roman Empire by splitting the empire into two regions run by co-emperors
significance- Split Rome into two parts
definition-Roman emperor (r. 312-337). After reuniting the Roman Empire, he moved the capital to Constantinople
significance- made Christianity a favored religion.
definition-In ancient Rome, the supreme governing body, originally made up only of aristocrats.
significance- elected representatives
definition-Persian religion founded by Zoroaster; taught that humans had the freedom to choose between right and wrong
significance- human freedom of choice
definition-Religion emerging from Middle East in the first century C.E. holding Jesus to be the son of God who sacrificed himself on behalf of mankind
significance- monotheistic exstention of Jeudism
definition-An African state that developed along the upper reaches of the Nile c. 100 B.C.E
significance- conquered Egypt and ruled it for several centuries.
definition-a religion based in Japan, marked by worship of nature and reverence for ancestors
definition-form of Christianity that took hold in Egypt and Ethiopia 1500 years ago
significance- differed with other Christian beliefs about Jesus's humanity