41 terms

13 Colonies

# 1.People/Founders # 2.Signifigance # 3. Why colonies were established # 4.Reason for establishing 13 colonies, # 5.Labor force in the colonies & how they got here # 6.3 colonial regions- geography, climate and economy # 7. Transatlantic Slave trade # 8. Vocabulary
John Winthrop
Founded Massachusetts for religious freedom. Believed only Puritans should have power. Believed Bible and educated people can govern themselves. Very strict.
Roger Williams
A dissenter who clashed with Massachusetts Puritans over the issue of separation of church and state. Banished from Massachusetts in 1636. He founded the colony of Rhode Island, which granted full religious freedom to its inhabitants.
Thomas Hooker
Founded Connecticut for religious and political reasons.
William Penn
Quaker founder of Pennsylvania. Believed in non-violence and religious tolerance for all.
Mayflower Compact
Signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower to set up a government for the Plymouth colony. The first agreement for self-government in America
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut (F. O. C)
First written constitution in the colonies. A plan of government to follow. All men who owned land could vote and non-church officials could vote.
Maryland Toleration Act
Law that promoted religious tolerance, granted freedom of worship for Christians, especially Catholics. Important step to freedom of religion
Virginia House of Burgesses
Law making body in Jamestown. First representative government in colonies
Rhode Island
Founded by Roger Williams, who didn't agree with the Pilgrims. Citizens were granted religious freedom. Emphasized the need to separate church an d state.
Founded by Thomas Hooker who didn't agree with the Puritans. Founded for religious freedom. The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut allowed for gov't participation without church membership.
Founded by William Penn as an haven for the Quakers. Citizens were granted religious freedom.
Founded as an haven/refuge for Catholics by Lord Baltimore.
Founded as a colony for debtors/poor, also served as a buffer between English colonies and Spanish Florida
Colony found by groups who suffered persecution for disagreeing with Church of England. Founded by Pilgrims (Plymouth, 1620) and Puritans (1630).
Indentured Servants
People who signed contracts, agreed to work for 3-7 years in exchange for passage to North America.
Labor used in plantations to harvest cash crops. These people were more common in the Southern Colonies due to a high need of labor on cash crop plantations.
New England Colonies
Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island & New Hampshire
Middle Colonies
New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey & Delaware
Southern Colonies
Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia
Lord Baltimore
Founder of Maryland, a colony which offered religious freedom, and a refuge for the persecuted Roman Catholics.
John Smith
Leader of Jamestown who introduced work ethic (no work, no food). Diplomat to local Native American tribes.
Lord Proprietors
Group of eight men appointed by Charles II who were given a charter by the king to settle new land in Carolinas for economic opportunities
James Ogelthorpe
Founder colony of Georgia as a chance for poor immigrants who were in debt to have a second chance at a comfortable life.
First Protestant colonists seeking religious freedom. Wanted to separate from the Church of England. Settled in Plymouth, Massachusetts in 1607.
A document given by the king to a person or group giving them the right to organize settlements in an area.
A religious group who wanted to purify the Church of England. Came to America for religious freedom and settled Massachusetts Bay.
People who travel to a new area to make a home and set up communities
Colonial Population
Grew in the 18th century due to immigration and high birthrate among colonial families
William Bradford
The second governor of the Plymouth colony, 1621-1657. Developed private land ownership and helped colonists get out of debt. Helped the colony survive droughts, crop failures, and Indian attacks. Believed in religious freedom of the Pilgrims
Duke of York
Was given New York in 1644 by his brother, the King. New Amsterdam was renamed after him.
A group of religious pacifists who were persecuted in Europe. Believed all people were equal and opposed war. William Penn established Pennsylvania as a safe haven for for this group.
Frame of Government of Pennsylvania
written by William Penn; government plan that gave citizens freedom of speech, religion & right to fair trial by jury; set up General Assembly = make laws for colony
North Carolina
This southern colony lacked good coastal harbors and was populated mainly by small settlements of tobacco farmers with little government involvement.
South Carolina
This southern became very rich by growing sugar and rice. Had slaves. Became as wealthy as Virgina, and were worried that the Spanish were going to invade. The biggest city in the southern colonies was in this colony.
English Debt Law
People who owed money are put in jail until the debt was repaid. Georgia was founded so these people could work off their debt
New England colonies geography/climate
Rocky soil, cold winters, short growing season, good harbors
Middle colonies - geography/climate
Fertile soil, mild winter/warm summers, good harbors
Southern colonies - geography/climate
Fertile soil, hot summers, long growing season,
New England colonies - economy
Subsistence farming, timber, fishing/whaling, ship building
Middle colonies -- economy
Cash crops (wheat), "Bread Basket," iron ore mining, livestock, craftsmen
Southern colonies -- economy
Plantations, cotton/tobacco, slave labor

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