41 terms

13 Colonies

# 1.People/Founders # 2.Signifigance # 3. Why colonies were established # 4.Reason for establishing 13 colonies, # 5.Labor force in the colonies & how they got here # 6.3 colonial regions- geography, climate and economy # 7. Transatlantic Slave trade # 8. Vocabulary
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John Winthrop
Founded Massachusetts for religious freedom. Believed only Puritans should have power. Believed Bible and educated people can govern themselves. Very strict.
Roger Williams
A dissenter who clashed with Massachusetts Puritans over the issue of separation of church and state. Banished from Massachusetts in 1636. He founded the colony of Rhode Island, which granted full religious freedom to its inhabitants.
Thomas Hooker
Founded Connecticut for religious and political reasons. Wrote the F.O.C. with emphasis on expanding voting rights.
William Penn
Quaker founder of Pennsylvania. Believed in non-violence and religious tolerance for all.
Mayflower Compact
Signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower to set up a government for the Plymouth colony.One of the first agreements for self-government in America. Emphasized majority rules as a principle.
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut (F. O. C)
First written constitution in the colonies. A plan of government to follow. All men who owned land could vote and non-church members could vote. Also created limits on gov't.
Maryland Toleration Act
Law that promoted religious tolerance, granted freedom of worship for Christians, especially Catholics. Important step to freedom of religion enjoyed by Americans today.
Virginia House of Burgesses
Law making body in Jamestown. First representative government in colonies
Rhode Island
Founded by Roger Williams/Anne Hutchinson, who didn't agree with the Puritans in Mass. Bay Colony. Citizens were granted religious freedom. Emphasized the need to separate church and state.
Connecticut
Founded by Thomas Hooker who didn't agree with the Puritans. Founded for religious freedom. The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut (1st Constitution) allowed for gov't participation without church membership.
Pennsylvania
Founded by William Penn as an haven for the Quakers. Citizens were granted religious freedom. Pennsylvania invited diversity into it's settlement.
Maryland
Founded as an haven/refuge for Catholics by Lord Baltimore.
Georgia
Founded as a colony for debtors/poor, also served as a buffer between English colonies and Spanish Florida
Massachusetts
Colony found by groups who suffered persecution for disagreeing with Church of England. Founded by Pilgrims (Plymouth, 1620) and Puritans (1630).
Indentured Servants
People who signed contracts, agreed to work for 3-7 years in exchange for passage to North America.
Slaves
Labor used in plantations to harvest cash crops. These people were more common in the Southern Colonies due to a high need of labor on cash crop plantations.
New England Colonies
Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island & New Hampshire

E= shipbuilding, lumber, fishing
S= religious freedom, Puritans
P= varied (Mass=theocracy)(Conn=Constitution) (R.I.=separation of church and state)
N=Cold, rocky soil, short growing season
Middle Colonies
New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey & Delaware

E=cash crop (grain), artisans, iron ore, trade
S=Diverse, Quakers, Religious Freedom
P= varied, Penn had representative gov't, NY did not
N=Moderate climate, fertile soil, rolling hills. long growing seasons
Southern Colonies
Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia

E= cash crops
S=Plantation owners, slaves
P= varied, some representative gov't (HOB)
N=hot climate, fertile soil, long growing season
Lord Baltimore
Founder of Maryland, a colony which offered religious freedom, and a refuge for the persecuted Roman Catholics.
John Smith
Leader of Jamestown who introduced work ethic (no work, no food). Diplomat to local Native American tribes.
Lord Proprietors
Group of eight men appointed by Charles II who were given a charter by the king to settle new land in Carolinas for economic opportunities
James Ogelthorpe
Founder colony of Georgia as a chance for poor immigrants who were in debt to have a second chance at a comfortable life. Georgia was also used as a buffer again potential Spanish invasion of the 13 colonies.
Pilgrims
First Protestant colonists seeking religious freedom. Wanted to separate from the Church of England. Settled in Plymouth, Massachusetts in 1607. Eventually, Plymouth is absorbed by Puritan settlement known as the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
charter
A document given by the king to a person or group giving them the right to organize settlements in an area.
Puritan
A religious group who wanted to purify the Church of England. Came to America for religious freedom and settled Massachusetts Bay Colony.
Settlers
People who travel to a new area to make a home and set up communities
Colonial Population
Grew in the 18th century due to immigration and high birthrate among colonial families
William Bradford
The second governor of the Plymouth colony, 1621-1657. Developed private land ownership and helped colonists get out of debt. Helped the colony survive droughts, crop failures, and Indian attacks. Believed in religious freedom of the Pilgrims
Duke of York
Was given New York in 1644 by his brother, the King of England. New York (originally called New Amsterdam) was a Dutch settlement taken by the English.
Quakers
A group of religious pacifists who were persecuted in Europe. Believed all people were equal and opposed war. William Penn established Pennsylvania as a safe haven for for this group. Expressed early anti-slavery sentiments
Frame of Government of Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania Constitution)
written by William Penn; government plan that gave citizens freedom of speech, religion & right to fair trial by jury; set up General Assembly = representative gov't that made laws for colony
North Carolina
This southern colony lacked good coastal harbors and was populated mainly by small settlements of tobacco farmers with little government involvement.
South Carolina
This southern became very rich by growing indigo and rice. Had slaves. Became as wealthy as Virgina, and were worried that the Spanish were going to invade. The biggest city (Charleston) in the southern colonies was in this colony.
English Debt Law
People who owed money are put in jail until the debt was repaid. Georgia was founded so these people could work off their debt
New England colonies geography/climate
Rocky soil, cold winters, short growing season, good harbors
Middle colonies - geography/climate
Fertile soil, rolling hills mild winter/warm summers, good harbors
Southern colonies - geography/climate
Fertile soil, hot summers, long growing season,
New England colonies - economy
Subsistence farming, timber, fishing/whaling, ship building
Middle colonies -- economy
Cash crops (wheat), "Bread Basket," iron ore mining, livestock, craftsmen
Southern colonies -- economy
Plantations, cash crops= tobacco, rice, indigo, labor= slave labor
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