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Planning and Conducting Surveys
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Terms in this set (57)
Survey
A study that collects information from a sample statistic in order to determine one or more characteristics of the population parameter.
Survey
A method of data collection cheaper and quicker than experiments, but subject to bias, and difficult to conclude cause and effect from.
Survey
Aims to obtain information about a population parameter by extrapolating data from a representative sample statistic.
Bias
The tendency to favor certain members of the population.
Bias
A systematic favoring of certain outcomes; can not be reduced by increasing sample size.
Bias
A systematic favoring of certain outcomes; increases as sample size increases.
Bias
A systematic favoring of certain outcomes; can be countered using randomization.
Sample
A set of data or elements drawn from a larger population and analyzed to estimate the characteristics of that population.
Sample
A set of individuals or items selected from a population for analysis to yield estimates of, or to test hypotheses about, parameters of the whole population.
Random Sample
A sample devised to avoid any bias; can be held to represent the whole population.
Biased Sample
A sample which does not, in some critical way, represent the population.
Randomization
A technique to protect a sample from unknown and known effects, or influences.
Random Sample
A sample which incorporates randomness into the selection process; representative of the population.
Randomization
Intended to minimize the influence of irrelevant details and selection bias, and produce statistically valid data
Sampling Error
Refers to the natural variability between samples; can be accounted for by increasing sample size.
Sampling Error
The difference between the population parameter, and the estimated population parameter.
Sampling Error
The natural variation between samples; cannot be eliminated.
Sampling Error
An error that occurs because a sample statistic is used to estimate a population parameter.
Sampling Error
The extent to which samples naturally differ in variability; can be reduced by increasing sample size.
Household Bias
When a sample includes only one member of a household; members of large households are underrepresented.
Household Bias
A bias which can be minimized by giving greater weight to members of larger households.
Nonresponse Bias
A type of bias that occurs if the participant selected for an interview can not be contacted or refuses to answer.
Nonresponse Bias
A type of bias that can be minimized using follow-up contacts, cash rewards, and other incentives.
Quota Sampling Bias
A type of bias wherein the researcher deliberately sets a requirement to ensure a particular group is represented.
Response Bias
A bias that occurs when participants do not answer truthfully, so as not to be percieved as having socially unacceptable views.
Response Bias
A bias that occurs due to the tendency of subjects to behave in certain ways; can alter validity of experiment.
Selection Bias
A bias in the selection of individuals, groups or data for analysis is done in such a way that proper randomization is not achieved.
Selection Bias
A bias error in which the sample is not representative of the population being studied, so that some opinions are over- or underrepresented.
Size Bias
A bias which occurs when one particular subgroup in a population is likely to be over-represented or under-represented due to its size.
Size Bias
Occurs when one particular subgroup in a population is likely to be over- or underrepresented due to its size.
Undercoverage Bias
A type of bias that occurs when there is inadequate representation due to the exclusion of certain groups.
Undercoverage Bias
A bias which occurs when some portion of the population is not sampled or has a smaller representation in the sample than in the population.
Voluntary Bias
A bias that frequently overrepresent negative opinions.
Voluntary Bias
A type of bias which gives too much emphasis to participants with strong opinions; occurs when individuals who offer to participate.
Wording Bias
A type of bias that occurs when poorly worded, or leading questions are asked, leading to answers that are unrepresentative of the population.
Wording Bias
A type of bias in which questions are posed to achieve a desired result.
Cluster Sample
A sample obtained by dividing the population into heterogenous groups, and taking random samples.
Cluster Sample
Sample in which researchers select a sample of heterogenous subgroups; each subgroup reflects the diversity of the whole population sampled.
Cluster
A heterogenous group in a sample; typically occurs naturally.
Simple Random Sample
A sample in which every possible member, or possible sample of the desired size has an equal chance of being selected.
Simple Random Sample
A sample in which every individual, or set of individuals has the same chance of being chosen.
Simple Random Sample
A sample in which every possible group of a given size is equally likely to be selected.
Simple Random Sample
A sample in which every possible sample of the desired size has an equal chance of being selected.
Stratified Sample
A sample found by dividing the population into homogenous groups, and taking random samples from each group chosen.
Stratified Sample
A sample which provides comparative information a SRS alone wouldn't give; account for variability between homogenous groups.
Stratified Sample
A sample drawn in such a way that known subgroups within a population are represented in proportion to their numbers in the general population.
Stratified Sample
A sample in which the population is divided into homogenous groups, and random samples are chosen from each.
Stratified Sample
A sample obtained by stratifying the sample frame and then selecting a fixed number of items from each homogenous group by means of a simple number technique.
Strata
A homogenous group; all individual have a characteristic or variable in common.
Strata
A term used to describe a large population divided into subpopulations on the basis of some characteristic for simplicity.
Systematic Sample
A sample in which every kth item of a sampling frame is selecting, staring from a randomly selected first element.
Systematic Sample
A sample involving listing the population in some order, choosing a random point to start, and picking every kth item from the list.
Systematic Sample
A starting point is selected followed by picking every nth subject from an order list.
Multistage Sample
A type of sample involving two or more steps, each of which could involve any of various sampling technique.
Multistage Sample
A sample resulting from two or more steps, involving multiple applications of cluster, stratified, and/or simple random sampling.
Simple Random Sample
A process of obtaining a sample from a population in which each member has an equal chance of being selected.
Simple Random Sample
A sample in which every possible sample of the desired size has an equal chance of being selected.
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