Introduction To Computers -- Intel: The Journey Inside
Terms in this set (74)
A computer uses a collection of circuits
the software we design for them
Computers can only calculate and sort information based on what?
can hold data, such as computing instructions or storage addresses, for use in processing.
massive multi-core processor
a CPU that contains a very large number of cores on a single chip.
A simpler kind of chip used to make DVD players, remote controls, and electronic calculators. They're made to do one thing well and the instructions are coded into them. You can't install new software to change what they do.
acts as a switch to control the flow of electric current. A processor contains many millions of these etched right into the silicon. Electrical signals are applied to make the this either to allow or disallow the flow of electricity.
allows a CPU to run at a speed faster than that for which it's rated. It increases the power and speed of a CPU when more processing power is needed.
Address and data buses
send addresses and data to memory, and read and write lines, which tell the memory whether it wants to set or get an addressed location, can connect to either ROM or RAM and generally connects to both.
Capturing, storing, updating, and retrieving data and information. A computer is an information-processing machine.
The data that is entered into a computer. The act of entering data into a computer.
perform mathematical operations, move data between memory locations and follow sets of instructions
The three basic tasks that CPUs do
The job of starting up the computer
included in a household appliance (Non-computer devices ) with limited computing capabilities. Many everyday devices like dishwashers, cameras, thermostats and cars now include processors, albeit smaller and less powerful ones than those in most computers.
Another name for a microchip.
The computer-generated information that is displayed to the user in some discernible form such as a screen display, printed page, or sound.
Conceived of in the late 1950s when engineers realized you could make computing components smaller by etching transistors, resistors and capacitors into a solid block of silicon rather than stringing them together with wires. And thus the modern microchip was born.
The device in the computer that performs most of the tasks we ask the computer to do—from playing computer games to graphing the number of people who prefer cricket to curling.
Reads and performs different tasks according to the software that instructs it. This ability is what makes the computer such a versatile machine.
A field of science devoted to developing devices that someday may be able to reason and solve problems.
As the Software humans create for them
No matter how "intelligent" we make computeers, they will only be as smart as this.
Babbage's design for his ultimate calculator which was never produced. It did anticipate the four components essential to modern computing.
input, storage, processing and output
four components essential to modern computing
refers to how long it takes for the CPU to request and receive data from the cache. However instantaneously your computer seems to react, every little action takes time. Retrieving data from the cache, however, is several times faster than retrieving from RAM (random access memory). Both are usually measured in nanoseconds.
a billionth of a second.
In the early 1800s, designed mechanical calculating machines that were the true ancestor of today's computers.
Ada Byron King
Known as the Countess of Lovelace was Babbage's programmer and today is considered the mother of computer programming.
Small pieces of silicon onto which transistors are etched.
The nickname of the area in which the microprocessor-producing industry, located in the San Francisco Bay Area in Southern California
In computing, any device in which (or on which) information is stored.
Hard drive, optical discs, storage and removable media
Examples of storage devices for a computer which are not actively being used in processing.
Are information processing machines. Information processing means that you can use them to access and change information like numbers, text, pictures, and even music.
input, storage, processing, and output
The four basic components to how computers operate
RAM & ROM
The two basic kinds of storage
Random Access Memory Temporary storage
For information actively being used for processing, accepts new information for temporary storage.
Read Only Memory (ROM)
Long-term storage is for information computers use again and again, such as the instructions the computer prepares itself with every time you turn it on. Does not accept new information.
Use integrated circuit to process information. Of the many chips in a computer, the microprocessor is the most complex. It is where the information you give a computer is processed.
ENIAC. (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer)
The first operational electronic digital computer developed for the U.S. Army by J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia.
Passive heat sinks or fans
Since every CPU needs to dissipate heat, the most common method of getting rid of heat to keeping a CPU running. are the most common methods.
RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) architecture
includes a optimized set of simple instructions, each requiring fewer transistors and executing in only one clock cycle. These instructions can be strung together via software to perform more complex operations.
CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer) architecture
The hardware has a large set of more complex instructions
Keyboard, mouse, microphone Input
devices are used to put information in your computer.
More versatile than embedded processors.
states that the number of transistors manufacturers can pack into a chip of the same size doubles every two years. More of an estimate that has held somewhat true than a law, the idea was first put forth in 1965 by Gordon E. Moore, co-founder of Intel, who at first predicted the number would double every year. The term is still used in computing circles, but the time frame gets revised periodically.
sound from your computer's speakers and documents printed by your printer
refers to how finely the CPU components are etched on to the chip.
programmed with a set of bytes that can't change.
has a variable ability to conduct electricity depending upon conditions. The material silicon is used to make most microchips because changes in conditions (such as current and voltage) can be used to control how conductive of electrons it is at a given moment, allowing controlled flow of electricity.
a single chip that integrates all the computing components necessary to run a device. Many of our smaller computing devices, such as smartphones and smart watches, use type of processor to pack a ton of computing capability into a tiny package. These chips may include the CPU, GPU, RAM, ROM and other components all on one integrated circuit.
one of the earliest calculating machines.
arithmetic logic unit (ALU)
performs arithmetic operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication and division and logic operations such as AND, OR, NOT, NAND, NOR and XOR.
central processing unit (CPU), or the microprocessor
The heart of your desktop or laptop computer, a tiny chip that contains an entire computation engine on top.
indicates how quickly the CPU can execute instructions. The frequency is measured in megahertz or gigahertz.
When the first commercial microprocessor, the Intel 4004, was introduced. Although it couldn't do much -- it could only add and subtract four bits at a time -- it powered one of the first portable calculators.
The memory that a CPU can use directly.
Retrieving data from the cache
Faster than retrieving from system memory.
holds the CPU, memory cards and various ports and controllers.
introduced in 1981, it used a 16-bit processor, but it only had an 8-bit bus to carry the data.
The physical parts of a computer that you can touch
keyboard and mouse of a computer
Examples of hardware
enables a computer to figure out what to do with the input you give it. You can't touch this.
gives the computer the ability to process many kinds of information.
The programs and data that make computer hardware function.
die size of a processor
The physical size of a silicon chip
A term used to refer to the surface area of the microchip, usually in square millimeters.
process size of a CPU
refers to the fineness of the manufacturing technique.
a type of register that contains the address of either the current or next instruction to be executed.
the measurement of the smallest wire on a chip
While a human hair is about 100 microns thick, current chips have wires that are less than this in width
The type of processing where multiple instructions are sent to more than one processor to execute at the same
To process information, computers need to be able to store this.
Where the microprocessor looks at for instructions on start up. Among other things such as storing the boot sector in RAM after it's read, these instructions check the machine's hardware for errors and then load the operating system.
Can only address between 2 and 4 gigabytes of RAM
Can address as much as one billion gigabytes of RAM
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