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AP World History Chapter 1- Vocabulary Terms
From the Origins of Agriculture to the First River-Valley Civilizations 8000-1500 B.C.E.
Terms in this set (29)
A term that refers to mostly complex societies, but it can also mean a society that shares a set of cultural traits.
Socially transmitted patterns of action and expression. Culture includes material objects (dwellings, clothing, tools, crafts, etc) along with other non-material values (beliefs, languages, traditions).
The development, transmission, and transformation of cultural practices and events.
The period of time around 2 million years ago to 4000 years ago. The historical period characterized by production of tools from stone and other nonmetallic substances. it was followed in some places by the Bronze Age and more generally by the Iron Age.
The period that ended about 3,000 years after the end of the last Ice Age, it lasted until about 10,000 years ago. (Old Stone Age) The period of the Stone Age associated with the evolution of humans. It predates the Neolithic period.
The period that follows the paleolithic period. (New Stone Age). Usually associated with the ancient agricultural revolutions.
People who support themselves by hunting wild animals and gathering wild edible plants and insects.
A term that refers to the changeover from food gathering to food production that occurred between ca. 8000 and 2000 B.C.E. (Neolithic Revolution)
The geological era since the end of the Great Ice Age about 11,000 years ago.
Structures and complexes of very large stones constructed for ceremonial and religious purposes in Neolithic times.
The largest and most important city in southern Mesopotamia in the second and first millennia B.C.E. It achieved particular eminence as the capital of the Amorite king Hammurabi in the eighteenth century B.C.E. and the Neo-Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar in the sixth century B.C.E.
The people who dominated southern Mesopotamia through the end of the third millennium B.C.E. They were responsible for the creation of many fundamental elements of Mesopotamian culture-such as irrigation technology, cuneiform, and religious conceptions-taken over by their Semitic successors.
Family of related languages long spoken across parts of western Asia and northern Africa.In antiquity these languages included Hebrew, Aramaic, and Phoenician. The most widespread modern member of the Semitic family is Arabic.
A small independent state consisting of an urban center and the surrounding agricultural territory. A characteristic political form in early Mesopotamia, Archaic/Classical Greece, Phoenicia, and early Italy.
Amorite ruler of Babylon (r. 1792-1750 B.C.E.) He conquered many city-states in southern and northern Mesopotamia and is best known for a code of laws, inscribed on a black stone pillar, illustrating the principles to be used in legal cases.
In the governments of many ancient societies, a professional position reserved for men who had undergone lengthy training required to be able to read and write using cuneiforms, hieroglyphics, or other early, cumbersome writing systems.
A massive pyramidal stepped tower made of mudbricks. It is associated with religious complexes in ancient Mesopotamian cities, but its function is unknown.
Small charm meant to protect the bearer from evil. Found frequently in archaeological excavations in Mesopotamia and Egypt, amulets reflect the religious practices of the common people.
A system of writing in which wedge-shaped symbols represented worlds or syllables. It originated in Mesopotamia and was used initially for Sumerian and Akkadian but later was adapted to represent other languages of western Asia. Because so many symbols had to be learned, literacy was confined to a relatively small group of administrators and scribes.
The central figure in the ancient Egyptian state. Believed to be an earthly manifestation of the gods, he used his absolute power to maintain the safety and prosperity of Egypt.
Egyptian term for the concept of divinely created and maintained order in the universe. Reflecting the ancient Egyptians' belief in an essentially beneficent world, the divine ruler was the earthly guarantor of this order.
A large, triangular stone monument, used in Egypt and Nubia as a burial place for the king. The largest pyramids, erected during the Old Kingdom near Memphis with stone tools and compulsory labor, reflect the Egyptian belief that the proper and spectacular burial of the divine ruler would guarantee the continued prosperity of the land.
The capital of Old Kingdom Egypt, near the head of the Nile Delta. Early rulers were interred in the nearby pyramids.
Capital City of Egypt and home of the ruling dynasties during the Middle and New Kingdoms, Amon, patron deity of Thebes, became one of the chief gods of Egypt. Monarchs were buried across the river in the Valley of the Kings.
A system of writing in which pictorial symbols represented sounds, syllables,or concepts. It was used for official and monumental inscriptions in ancient Egypt. Because of the long period of study required to master this system, literacy in hieroglyphics was confined to a relatively small group of scribes and administrators. Cursive symbols forms were developed for rapid composition on other media, such as papyrus.
A reed that grows along the banks of the Nile River in Egypt. From it was produced a course, paper-like, writing medium used by the Egyptians and many other peoples in the ancient Mediterranean and Middle East.
A body preserved by chemical processes of special natural circumstances, often in the belief that the deceased will need it again in the afterlife. In ancient Egypt the bodies of people who could afford mummification underwent a complex process or removing organs, filling body cavities, dehydrating the corpse with natron, and then wrapping the body with linen bandages and enclosing it in a wooden sarcophagus.
Site of one of the great cities of the Indus Valley civilization of the third millennium B.C.E. It was located on the northwest frontier of the zone of cultivation (in modern Pakistan), and may have been a center for the acquisition of raw materials, such as metals and precious stones, from Afghanistan and Iran.
Largest of the cities of the Indus Valley civilization. It was centrally located in the extensive flood-plain of the Indus River in contemporary Pakistan. Little is known about the political institutions of Indus Valley communities, but the large-scale of construction at Mohenjo-Daro, the orderly grid of streets, and the standardization of building materials are evidence of central planning.
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