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Society & Technology Final
Terms in this set (39)
actions or ways of treating other people that are considered desirable, appropriate and/or moral
agreements between members about the existence and makeup of each feature of their shared experience
Ex: belief in the existence of God, UFOs, etc.
Rules of Conduct
Ex: It is the norm to wear clothes in the U.S. when in public
Ways in which people are rewarded or punished for their behavior
Informal: public display of approval or disapproval, but not subject to criminal offenses.
Ex: Negative-defriending someone on Facebook
Ex: Positive- buying a child a toy for good behavior
Formal: actions that are deemed inappropriate in a particular culture and require formal action
Ex: nudity in public= indecent exposure
Ex: murder=criminal offense
refers to fear and hostility toward people who are from other countries or cultures.
Ex: "Im afraid of Muslims because I think they're all terrorists"
The fundamentals of life you have learned no longer apply and you find yourself uncomfortable.
Define technology as described by Volti
A system created by humans that uses knowledge and organization to produce objects and techniques for the attainment of specific goals (Volti 2014:6)
Define Technological Determinism
The belief that technology acts as an independent force in our life.
What are the pros and cons of technological development
Technology can produce social disruptions:
-automation destroying jobs
-new weapons in warfare
Failure of levees in New Orleans
Illnesses from pollution
Describe Nolan and Lenski's Ecological Evolutionary Theory
The theory argues that the evolution of human societies can be understood as similar to the biological evolution of species
However, where biological species evolve through changes in their genetics, human societies evolve through changes in technological innovations and consequently their culture
The theory describes the three basic sets of forces that shape the evolution of human societies:
What are Examples of Forces of Continuity?
features of a society that act to preserve much of the existing information and structure of a society
1. in the absence of a clearly better alternative people will keep doing what they have been doing. Ex: use of pen and paper
2. Whenever existing elements of culture are percieved as useful, they will be preserved.
What are Examples of Forms of Innovation
The forms of innovation are HOW change happens
Diffusion: the process of borrowing social and cultural innovations from other societies Ex: Americans eating sushi
Alterations: Relatively unimportant changes with little adaptive value Ex: changing fashion and music
Discoveries: Acts thatt add NEW information with adaptive value to a society's cultural pool Ex: Ben Franklin discovering electricity
Inventions: Combinations of already existing information that has new adaptive value Ex: Thomas Edison using electricity to create the light bulb.
What are examples of Causes of Innovation?
Human's primary needs (Food, shelter, clothing, etc.)
Humans secondary needs
Chance: accidents can lead to new discoveries or inventions
Changes in the Physical or Social Environments
Increases in human populations can create increased pressure for change
What are examples of rate of innovation?
HOW QUICKLY change happens
Ex: amount of information a society already possesses
Ex: Population size: more people leads to more new ideas and information that is produced
Ex: Stability and character of a society's social and biophysical environment
Ex: the extent of contact with other societies-more borrowing and innovation
The systemic nature of sociocultural systems-change breeds more change
The amount of "Fundamental" innovations-breed massive change
What are examples of Forces of Selection?
determine which elements survive and which ones do not
Intra-societal selection- Within a society. When the members of a society select a particular cultural feature.
Ex: the rise of McDonalds restaurants within Western societies
Inter societal selection- Between societies. When two societies compete and one society either eliminates, conquers, or absorbs another.
Ex: when Europeans colonized North America, the culture of indigenous American societies were quickly eliminated or marginalized
Explain technological fixes and their pitfalls
A technological fix is an attempt to fix something undesirable through technological innovation
While some problems lend themselves well to technological fixes (antibiotics as a fix to infection) other problems (hunger, poverty, environmental degradation) may not be so easily addressed through technology
When a problem is social and inherently complex technological fixes are less likely to be successful because it doesn't fix the root of the problem.
What is a luddite?
motivated by concerns over workers losing their jobs to the machine age, the loss of specialized professions, along with severely depressed economic conditions of the times
What is a neo-luddite?
acts of resistance associated with more contemporary concerns over the consequences of technology
Identify the push and pull factors of technological innovation
Scientific breakthroughs and refinements "Push" new technologies into the world by providing new inventions and discoveries
However, there must also be both a desire for the innovation and the ability to pay for it, which is called effective demand
Volti considers these factors the "pull"
The distribution of wealth and power are important influences for push and pull factors
The idea that technology is a human creation and technological change is a social process
Examines how social structures and social processes have affected choices of technologies; and technological change is an inherently political process
Identify the impact of power and the distribution of wealth on push and pull factors
power and distribution of wealth play a huge role on the push and pull factors because many technological innovations are luxuries not answers to basic needs.
Define and describe effective demand
There must be a desire for the innovation as well as the ability to pay for it.
Define and apply McDonaldization
1. efficiency-the simplest and cheapest way of meeting specific, limited needs-speed
2. calculability-provides quantitative information to inform producer/customer decisions- quantity over quality
3. Predictability- you know what you are going to get, variety is minimized-relatively the same anywhere and anytime
4. Control-both workers and customers are highly regulated through technology and design
Define and Apply Technological Diffusion
The processes through which they spread from their initial sources into homes, factories, offices, and so forth
The diffusion of technology is also a learning process as a participant adapts the technology to suit his/her particular needs
Global Examples: Western Europe, The US and Japan have always been more open to the idea of "borrowing" technology from other regions.---> allowed them to innovate faster, build more complex societies, and even begin to dominate other societies
Define and List Appropriate Technologies
presenting forms of technology that suit the needs of that population.
For example: hand or bicycle-powered water pumps, hand tools for farming etc.
Define and categorize societies based on their subsistence technologies
Hunting/Gathering: hunting and foraging is primary means of subsistence
Simple Horticultural: cultivate plants, but mostly by hand (dont use plows)
Advanced Horticultural: use metal tools for planting/harvesting
Simple Agrarian: cultivate plants and use plows, but only soft metals
Advanced agrarian-use iron tools and weapons
Industrial: heavy dependance on machine technology and inanimate sources of energy
Describe the elements that lead to the increasing complexity of society (Ecological-Evolutionary Theory)
Advances in subsistence technology is a necessary condition for increasing population size and complexity
compare and contrast core, periphery and semi-periphery countries
core countries: heavily industrialized, complex, and typically developed capitalist countries. They dominate economic systems across the world.
periphery countries: developing, poor or third world countries. Lack wealth and power. Heavily dependent on core countries
semi-periphery countries: in between developed and poor countries. Not entirely powerless. Play important roles in global production
explain the role of technology in the process of globalization
technology is essential to globalization. globalization is a social process tied to technological innovation and diffusion
what is the role of the elites and power in the diffusion of technology/globalization
Globalization is driven by the elites and the core countries
Describe global inequality as caused by globalization and technology
Describe the major factors that cause environmental problems
Pollution and Depletion
Pollution is largely the consequence of industrial activity.
Depletion is also caused by consumption and industrial activity
Technology has caused environmental destructions
describe the major drivers of climate change and the most recent observations of climate change
scientists are more confident than ever that humans have interfered with the climate and that further human induced climate change is on the way.
11 of the past 12 year have been the warmest on record
explain Jevons Paradox
argues that gains in efficiency ultimately don't matter because it only leads to greater consumption.
If we don't challenge consumption, but are solely dependent upon efficiency our habits will not make a positive impact.
argue whether you think technology is the problem or the solution to environment issues
compare and contrast Ecological Modernization and the Treadmill of Production theories
treadmill of production: when a capitalist economy creates ecological problems by creating a treadmill effect of production and consumption.
-an economic growth coalition including business, labor and the government all of whom benefit from expansion
the basis of ECO MOD is to use technological innovation and the capitatlist market to solve many of the worlds environmental issues
-it supports a greeening of capitalism
Explain Environmental Justice and Injustice
environmental justice is the principle that all people and communities are entitled to equal protection of environmental and public health laws and regulations
environmental injustice refers to a situation in which a specific social group is disproportionately affected by environmental hazards.
research shows that minorities and lower income populations are much lore likely to live in polluted or environmentally devastated aresas
Describe Risk Society
the idea that the development of new technologies produce unforeseen risks for the entire society..
for example: nuclear energy, the atomic bomb, gasoline powered engines
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