Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Real Test #4
Terms in this set (110)
What constitutes most of body weight?
7 functions of water
1. Carries nutrients and waste products
2. Maintains structure of large molecules
3. Participates in metabolic reactions
4. Serves as solvent
5. Lubricant and cushion
6. Regulates body temp
7. Maintains blood volume
ICF and ECF
Interstitial and Intravascular
How is water intake stimulated?
Mouth, hypothalamus, and nerves sense changes
How does the thirst response act?
lags behind the body's need for water causing dehydration symptoms
4 sources of water
1. water (1/3)
4. metabolic water
4 ways water gets out
1. urine (500mL)
2. vapor from lungs
how much water lost on average each day?
What is the recommended water intake?
2-3 L (8-12 cups) per day
What is ADH and how is it triggered?
water conserving hormone that stimulates kidneys to reabsorb water
released when hypothalamus stimulates pituitary gland
What is renin?
Enzyme released by kidney cells when blood pressure is low and causes a reabsorption of sodium
What does renin do in regard to angiotensin?
Hydrolyzes angiotensinogen to angiotensin I
What does angiotensin do?
stimulates adrenal glands to release aldosterone and signals kidneys to excrete potassium and retain sodium
What is the general fluid balance in the body?
2/3 inside and 1/3 outside
What does the dissociation of salt do?
conducts electricity and forms and electrolyte solution
T/F: Electrolytes attract water
Electrolytes predominantly outside of cell
Sodium, chloride and calcium
Electrolytes predominantly inside of cell
Potassium, magnesium, phosphate, sulfate
Where does mineral regulation occur?
GI tract and kidneys
4 causes of fluid and electrolyte imbalance
1. Prolonged vomiting or diarrhea
2. Heavy sweating
4. Traumatic wounds
What is lost from vomiting or diarrhea?
What is lost due to tumor development?
How do you replace lost fluids and electrolytes?
Plain cool water and regular foods and solution of sugar, salt, and water
How is acidity regulated?
Why is there a narrow pH range?
to avoid life threatening consequences form denatured proteins
What happens with high hydrogen concentrations?
What happens with low hydrogen concentrations?
What do buffers do?
neutralize acids or bases
What are the two buffers we talked about?
bicarbonate and carbonic acid
What two mechanisms are buffers used?
Respiration and excretion in kidneys (bicarbonate)
4 roles of sodium in the body
1. Principal cation of extracellular fluid (Primary regulator of volume)
2. Acid-base balance
3. Nerve impulse transmission
4. Muscle contraction
In what manner does sodium travel in the body?
T/F: Diets rarely lack sodium
How does sodium relate to bone loss?
High salt intake associated with increased calcium excretion
What foods have the most sodium?
What foods have the least sodium?
fresh fruits and vegetables
What is sodium deficiency?
3 roles of chloride in the body
1. Major anion of extracellular fluids (Moves passively across membranes) (Associates with sodium and potassium)
2. Helps maintain fluid and electrolyte balance
3. Part of hydrochloric acid
Where is chloride the most present?
What is the principle intracellular cation?
3 roles of potassium in body
1. Helps maintain fluid and electrolyte balance
2. Helps maintain cell integrity
3. Aids in nerve impulse transmission and muscle contraction
Which foods are most potassium rich?
What causes hypertension in regard to potassium?
Low potassium in diet causing a raise in blood pressure and a risk of stroke
7 potassium deficiency symptoms
1. Increase in blood pressure
2. Salt sensitivity
3. Kidney stones
4. Bone turnover
5. Irregular heartbeats
6. Muscle weakness
7. Glucose intolerance
What is the most abundant mineral in the body?
What does an adequate intake of calcium do?
Grows a healthy skeleton in early life and helps minimize bone loss in later life
Where is calcium stored?
bones and teeth
What does calcium do in body fluids?
maintains normal BP
What does extracellular calcium do?
participates in blood clotting
4 roles of intracellular calcium
1. Regulation of muscle contraction
2. Transmission of nerve impulses
3. Secretion of hormones
4. Activation of some enzyme reactions
5 calcium disease preventions
2. Blood cholesterol
4. Colon cancer
Calcium recommendations for adolescents, age 50 up, and women 50 up and everyone over 70
1300 mg, 1000 mg, 1200 mg
What is the second most abundant mineral in the body?
5 roles of phosphorus in the body
1. Part of major buffer system
2. Part of DNA and RNA
3. Assists in energy metabolism
4. Helps transport lipids in the blood
5. Structural component of cell membranes
Best source for phosphorus
protein rich food
Where is most magnesium found in body?
More than half in bones
5 roles of magnesium in the body
1. Maintains bone health
2. Necessary for energy metabolism
3. Catalyst in ATP production
4. Inhibits muscle contraction and blood clotting
5. Supports normal function of immune system
Sources of magnesium
Legumes, seeds, nuts, and leafy green vegetables
2 sources of sulfate
1. food and beverages
2. amino acids
T/F: There is no recommended intake for sulfate
6 nutrients that offset osteoporosis
2. Adequate protein
3. Vitamins D and K
4. Vitamins C and A
5. Omega-3 fatty acids
6. Iron inhibits calcium absorption
4 roles of iron in the body
1. Switches back and forth between two forms (Ferrous iron) (Ferric iron)
2. Cofactor in oxidation-reduction reactions
3. Part of electron carriers
4. Hemoglobin and myoglobin
T/F: Too little or too much iron does not pose a threat
How does the body conserve and or balance iron?
What does ferritin do?
stores iron in small intestine
What is transferrin?
iron transport protein
Two different types of iron
Heme and non heme
Where is heme iron found?
in animal foods
Where is non heme iron found?
in plant and animal food
What are the 3 absorption-enhancers for non heme iron?
2. Vitamin C aids in absorption
3. Some acids and sugars
6 factors that Inhibit Iron Absorption
1. Phytates (IP6)
2. Vegetable proteins
5. Dietary factors combined
6. Individual variation in absorption
What is the most common nutrient to be deficient in across the world?
When is iron deficiency most likely to occur? (4)
1. Women in reproductive years
3. Infants and young children
5 main natural iron sources
8 roles of zinc in the body
1. Supports the work of hundreds of proteins
2. Stabilizes cell membranes and DNA
3. Immune function
4. Growth and development
5. Synthesis, storage, and release of insulin
6. Blood clotting
7. Thyroid hormone function
8. Behavior and learning performance
What are the two fates of zinc?
Either used or retained in intestinal cells
How is zinc transported in the blood?
By means of albumin and transferrin
T/F: Zinc deficiency is widespread in developing worlds
What are the main sources of zinc?
Protein rich foods
What does the GI tract convert iodine in food into?
Iodide that is readily absorbed by the body
5 roles of iodine in the body
1. Body temperature
2. Metabolic rate
3. Reproduction and growth
4. Blood cell production
5. Nerve and muscle function
What are the affects of iodine deficiency?
Thyroid hormone production declines
2 main sources of iodine
2. iodized salt
What does selenium substitute for?
Sulfur in some amino acids (Methionine, cysteine, and cystine)
3 roles of selenium in the body
2. Part of proteins
3. Enzymes activate or inactivate thyroid hormone
2 issues from selenium deficiency
Kesha disease and cancer
5 sources of selenium
1. Found in soil
5. Brazil nuts
What does copper transport and balance rely on?
a system of proteins
3 main roles of copper in the body
1. Constituent of enzymes
(Reactions that consume oxygen or oxygen radicals)
2. Iron metabolism
3. Defense against oxidative damage
6 sources of copper
2. Whole grains
6. Water delivered through copper plumbing
Where is manganese located in the body?
Bones and metabolically active organs
3 roles of manganese in the body
1. Cofactor for enzymes that facilitate metabolism
2. Bone formation
3. Conversion of pyruvate to a TCA cycle compound
Are requirements for manganese low or high?
Low (deficiencies rare)
Source of manganese
Where is fluoride found in the body?
Bones and teeth
Sources of fluoride
drinking water, tea, and fish
Is there a large or small amount of ATP in the body tissues?
small all the time
In what amount of time does ATP deliver energy?
How long does creatine phosphate last?
about 10 seconds
When is creatine phosphate produced?
How does creatine phosphate work as a mechanism?
Split anaerobically and releases phosphate and replenishes ATP supplies
When does the lactic acid system start to kick in?
10 seconds after intense activity
Is lactic acid aerobic or anaerobic?
What is the primary source of glucose?
How is lactate formed?
anabolic breakdown of glucose to pyruvate and then to lactate
How long can lactic acid support intense activity?
up to 3 mins due to quick generation of a small amount of ATP
What are continuously oxidized to provide ATP?
Carbs, fats, and amino acids
Where does the body derive most of its ATP from during rest?
Oxidation of fatty acids and glucose
What influences how much glycogen is stored?
the amount of carbs in diet
What types of activities use more glycogen?
Sets with similar terms
water & major minerals
Nutrition Chapter 12 & 13
Nutrition Exam 2: Water and Minerals
Other sets by this creator
Psych 101 Final
Micro Exam 2
Anatomy II Exam 3
Other Quizlet sets
MFT Study Guide
Fin 308 Ch 3