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Child Development (Chapter 10)
Terms in this set (32)
Erik Erikson; 8 stages that necessitate resolution of a crisis/conflict that lead us to develop long-lasting ideas about the self.
Initiative vs. Guilt
Preschool years largely encompass the initiative vs. guilt stage (3-6 yrs.); Desire to act independently, guilt comes from the unintended consequences of their actions; don't hinder/stifle them - let them think on their own.
Self-Concept in Preschool Years
Picture of Yourself; How to describe self; What you are like; "Who am I?" question; Typically overestimate their skills and knowledge BECAUSE they haven't experienced failure quite yet;
Collectivist vs. Individualistic Cultures
Asian societies = collectivist - "The nail that stands out is the one who is pounded"; Interdependence; Blending in; For the sake of family;
Western societies (U.S.) = individualistic - "squeaky wheel gets the grease"; uniqueness; competition;
Phenomenon in which minority children indicate preference for white values or people.
Manifested in play; Out-weighs ethnic variables when it comes to play;
Theoretical Perspectives on Gender Differences
Psychoanalytic perspectives - attribute gender differences to IDENTIFICATION - process in which children attempt to be similar to their same sex parent, incorporating parent's attitudes and values.
Social learning approaches - argue that children learn gender-related behavior & expectations from direct TRAINING and from OBSERVATION of others (media).
Cognitive Approaches - argue that individuals establish a GENDER IDENTITY, a perception of themselves as male/female;
A cognitive framework that organizes information relevant to gender.
Preschoolers begin developing "rules" about what is right/inappropriate for males/female influences that shape behavior;
Belief that people are permanently males/females depending on fixed biological factors.
A state in which gender roles encompass characteristics from both sexes.
Play = most important part of friendships;
Playing together remains an important part of all preschoolers' friendships.
Older preschoolers pay attention to concepts like trust, support, shared interests.
At the beginning of the preschool years, children engage in FUNCTIONAL PLAY - involves simple, repetitive activities - doing something for the sake of being active.
By age 4, children engage in CONSTRUCTIVE PLAY - involves manipulating objects to build something.
Allows children to test cognitive skills, practice motor skills, problem solve, and cooperate.
Children play side by side; do not interact w/each other.
Children watch others play.
2 or more children actually interact w/one another by sharing/borrowing toys - but do not do the same thing (end of preschool years).
Genuinely play with one another, taking turns, playing games, or devising contests (end of preschool years).
Preschoolers' Theory of Mind
Knowledge/beliefs about the mental world; Explanations for how others think and the reasons for their behaving in the way they do.
By age 2 - understand that others have emotions;
By age 3, 4 - imagine and pretend;
Preschool age - understand that people have motives for behavior;
Children's social lives are influenced by their home lives;
Diana Baumrind - 3 types of parenting (Authoritarian, Permissive, Authoritative)
Controlling, punitive, rigid, cold;
Value strict, unquestioning obedience;
Children can be withdrawn, show little sociability, not be friendly;
Provide inconsistent feedback;
Require little of their children; Do not assume responsibility for how their children turn out;
Children tend to be dependent and moody, lack social skills and self control.
Firm, setting clear and consistent rules;
Relatively strict; Warm and loving;
Encourage independence in children;
Children fare best - are independent, friendly, self-assertive, and cooperative.
Show virtually no interest in children;
Emotionally detached - see role as providing nothing more than food and shelter;
Children fare the worst - feel unloved and emotionally detached.
According to Piaget, is the initial stage of moral development (4-7 yrs.) - roles are seen as invariant, unchangeable, and beyond people's influence and control; do not take intention into account; This stage - believe in immanent justice
Broken rules earn immediate punishment
Incipient Cooperation Stage
According to Piaget, children become more social and learn rules (7-10 yrs.); Shared conception of rules;
Autonomous Cooperation Stage
Children become fully aware that game rules can be modified if all people agree;
Social Learning Approaches
Approaches to morality - focus on how the environment influences children's moral behavior;
Prosocial Behavior - helping behavior that benefits others;
Moral conduct learned through reinforcement and modeling;
Preschoolers are more apt to model the behavior of warm, responsive adults and models viewed as highly competent/high in prestige; Abstract Modeling;
Aggressive acts in young children are often related to attaining a desired goal;
Frequency/duration of aggressive acts decline as children move through the preschool years;
Boys show higher levels of aggression;
Girls - Relational Aggression (non-physical, intended to hurt feelings/well-being);
Bobo Doll - Children who see aggression model aggression;
Recommended textbook explanations
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Spencer A. Rathus
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Lori Watson, Patrick J. Hurley
Myers' Psychology for AP
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Myers' Psychology for the AP Course
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