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U.S. History: Unit 2-Immigration, Urbanization, and Industrialization
Terms in this set (64)
People in Europe and Asia moved from their country to America hoping to enter and settle permanently in the U.S.
New Immigrants vs. Old Immigrants
These immigrants came to America from Northwest Europe before 1890, and there were other immigrants that came to America from Southern and Eastern Europe after 1890. The main differences between these two types of immigrants was their language (few spoke English), religion (Catholic and Jewish), and race (did not "look" American). The U.S. was concerned about the Catholics because they were afraid that the Pope would take over.
Push and Pull Factors
These factors were reasons why people may want to leave their country. They are economic reasons (economy was very industrial), natural disasters (mainly crop failures and volcanoes), growing populations, and political and religious persecution. These other factors were reasons why people may want to come to America. They included that America was seen as a "magic land" of opportunities and riches and our roads were paved with gold, there were opportunities for people without jobs (mainly the railroad and factories), and if they had family members in the U.S.
This mainly refers to immigrants' voyage to America by steamship. They were kept in the bottom of the boat which was below the water line. The conditions were horrible. There was no ventilation, little light, no windows, their beds consisted of steel bunks/barracks, very few toilets, you couldn't bathe, and there was disease. People who died on the voyage were tossed overboard. These conditions that immigrants went through were not very cleanly.
All immigrants had to have a medical inspection which was to make sure you wouldn't be a burden to the government if you were ill. You were sent back if you were diseased, under 16 years old without a parent, an ex-con (a convict or were in debtors' prison), or if you had no money. Chances are, you will likely not be able to live in America. Family members were split up, so one may have to leave and the rest can stay. If your parents died or they were turned back, and you were under 16, you would most likely be turned back as well unless you had a family member that lived in the U.S. You also had to go through legal inspection which determined whether you could stay in the U.S., and names were often changed. When immigrants got through all of that, they usually settled in nearby cities (some in New York, others in the West), lived in close-nit ethnic neighborhoods called enclaves, and spoke their native languages.
These types of buildings were run down, low rent apartment buildings. They had very crowded conditions (sometimes up to 25-50 people sharing a room), and the streets would be flooded with waste. Also, fires, disease, and death were very common. These buildings/areas were very uncleanly.
Push and Pull Factors for Asian Immigrants
Chinese immigrated to America for different reasons than the Europeans. There was severe unemployment, poverty, famine (crop failure), the Taiping Rebellion, and the demand for railroad workers in their country. When the Chinese immigrated to America, they worked mainly as laborers, servants, skilled tradesmen, merchants, and they owned laundries.
In 1910, barracks opened on this place, which was in California, where many Asian immigrants waited, sometimes months, for the results of immigration hearings.
This grew in the U.S. because this group of people disliked the immigrants. There was a lot predjudice created based upon an immigrants' race, color, religion, language, etc. These people thought that the immigrants threatened the way of American life, and, most importantly, it created competition for jobs. They wanted to restrict the number of immigrants entering the U.S.
Chinese Exclusion Act
This act banned Chinese immigration for 10 years, and it prevented those already in the country from becoming U.S. citizens. This act also restricted the number of immigrants to enter the country, and immigrants wouldn't have the same protections and rights as American citizens did.
The American population grew from 10 million in 1870 to over 30 million by 1900. The farmers moved to cities because of better paying jobs (mainly factories), running water and plumbing was just created, electricity was also introduced, and for entertainment which included baseball, boxing, and amusement parks (Coney Island).
Chicago's Louis Sullivan helped design this tall, steel frame building. This replaced many old, run down buildings.
Transportation changed due to the increased amounts of people living in the cities. This thing included the horse car, electric trolley cars, and elevated railroads to make transportation less hectic and more easier to travel.
The growth of cities resulted in an increase in crime, fire, disease, and pollution. The murder rate increased from 1880-1900, and alcohol contributed to the increase in crime which was sometimes part of some immigrants' religious beliefs. Native-born citizens (nativists) blamed the immigrants for an increase in crime. The contaminated drinking water from improper sewage disposal resulted in epidemics of typhoid fever and cholera.
This thing was an informal political group designed to gain and keep power. It provided essentials to city dwellers (the immigrants) in exchange for votes in political matters. They were run by party bosses. It created an imbalance of power in the government.
Political machines were run by this group of people, who had control of the cities' money.
Politicians became wealthy due to this, which was getting money through dishonest or questionable means.
Part of this refers to something being gold on the outside while the inside is made of cheaper material. This time period was when people referred to America as a "golden" time (at the surface which was pretty much lies), but as you scratch away at the surface, America is not really as "golden" as it seems. The authors tried to point out that although this was a time of growth, beneath the surface were corruption, poverty, and a huge difference between the rich and poor.
This is similar to a theory that stated that a species that cannot adapt to the environment will eventually die out which is the same exact way Hubert Spencer felt human society evolved through competition. For America, this meant that the very few strong and wealthy people will survive while the many weak and poor people will die. He concluded that society progressed because only the fittest people survived. This was also similar to laissez-faire, an economic doctrine that was opposed to government interference with business.
Gospel of Wealth
Andrew Carnegie's idea was that the wealthy should give back to society to help improve it meaning it's the wealthy people's responsibilty to help the many others that are weak and poor.
This changed in the late 1800's. People had more money to spend on entertainment and recreation. During the 1800's, the saloon acted like a community and political center for male workers. Sports began to appear as a popular pastime, and ragtime music became prevalent in society. French theatres, Vaudevilles, opened as well.
Social Gospel Movement
Reformers that helped organize this to help the poor by building churches that provide social services.
Reformers that helped organize this to help the poor by providing aid and religious conseling.
Reformers that helped organize this to help the poor by organizing prayer meetings, daycare, and language classes.
Reformers that helped organize this to help the poor by wanting to limit alcohol consumption.
Settlement Housing Movement
The reformers for this movement felt it was their Christian duty to improve living conditions of the poor. These types of houses offered medical care, recreational programs, and English classes.
Jane Addams and Hull House
This lady created this place which led to the creation of other settlement houses in poor neighborhoods.
The act of becoming knowledgeable about American culture. This was the key to success of immigrant children. Public schools aided in this. If they could get to the immigrants' children first, and teach them about American culture, then their own culture will be wiped clean, like disappear.
After the Civil War, industry expanded as millions of people left their farms to work in mines and factories. By the early 1900's, the U.S. was the #1 industrial nation.
Reasons for Growth
The nation has wealth of natural resources (petroleum, gold silver, and copper). Railroads established new markets-could move products across the country. The growing population provides workers and markets. There was also an explosion of inventions that would improve business and manufacturing efficiency (light bulb, telephone, telegraph, ice machine, and sewing machines). There was also availble capital-money that was needed too.
A philosophy or economical doctrine that the government did not interfere with other enterprises. Basically, the government just "let them be".
The U.S. followed a "laissez faire" philosophy basically stating that the government just "let it be". There were no controls on prices, wages, production, ownership, and there were low taxes. Relied upon supply and demand to regulate prices and wages.
People who risk their capital (money) in organizing and running a business.
Alexander Graham Bell
This man created the very first type of telephone in 1876.
This man created the light bulb in 1879. He was also known as the "Wizard of Menlo Park".
Edwin Drake created the oil well in 1859, Thaddeus Lowe created the ice machine in 1865, Alexander Graham Bell created the telephone in 1876, Thomas Edison created the light bulb in 1879, Northrup created the automatic loom (weaves fabric) in 1893, and Wilbur and Orville Wright created the very first plane. Other ideas/creations at the time were the phonograph, dictaphone (like a tape recorder), and the motion picture camera.
An organization owned by many people, called shareholders, so it had an enormous amount of money available. It was seperate from the individual and consisted of shareholders, property (factories), and contracts. This also made goods and cheaper.
Costs a company has to pay like loans, mortgages, and taxes.
Costs that occur when running a company like wages, shipping charges, and materials.
He was a philanthropist and steel manufacturer that was born in Scotland. He revolutionized the steel industry using the Bessemer process which was making high quality steel more efficient. He also used vertical intergration which meant he owned all the different businesses it depends on for its operation.
This made high quality steel more efficient. Plus it was a much faster method.
This is when a company owns all the different businesses it depends on for its opertation.
John D. Rockefeller
He made a huge fortune in the oil industry, and he gave half of it away. He was also an industrialist that used horizontal integration which meant combining many firms doing the same type of business into one large corporation. He was a robber baron.
This was combining many firms doing the same type of business into one large corporation.
This occurs when one company gains control of an entire market which meant that there was no competition. In the late 1800's, Americans started to become suspicious of large corporations and feared of these because there was no limit on how high a company may set the prices for their products.
A way to merge businesses that did not violate the laws against owning other businesses.
This owns the stock of companies that produce goods; it controls all of the companies that it owns.
Entrepeneurs that acquired their wealth through corrupt means. They were very common in the railroad industry. They also mistreated their workers or employees. One of them was John Rockefeller.
Captains of Industry
There was a positive influence on society, and created jobs and wealth for others. An example of one of these people was Andrew Carnegie.
People using their great fortunes to further social progress (help society get better).
Birth of Labor Unions
These started to form because the workers received horrible conditions on their jobs. They worked long hours, low wages, dangerous conditions, and boring work. Many jobs were unsafe especially factories (diseases and fires) and people in the garment industry (people would get mangled or get their hair caught in the machines). Anyways, the workers joined together to try to improve their conditions, and there were no laws that gave workers the right to organize. It was difficult to organize unskilled labor- easier to replace, large labor pool.
Attacks on Labor Unions
To prevent these from being created, companies would fire their workers if they were a part of these groups, hire scabs (which were replacement workers when former workers go on strike), blacklist workers (which was when the boss tells other companies that a former employee of theirs was trying to take part in one of these groups which prevented them from getting a chance at another job), force them to sign "Yellow Dog" contracts (which prevents workers to start one of these groups but they would get a job), or initiate a lock-out (letting the situation calm down for awhile).
Some people believed the problems of workers was due to our capitalist system. Wanted a classless society with government ownership of industry to protect workers. Raised fears in the U.S. of an overthrow of government/economy.
Knights of Labor
Open to all workers regardless of race, gender, or degree of skill. These people favored an eight hour workday for skilled and unskilled laborers, equal pay, an end to child labor, and use arbitration to end disputes. In 1866, they caused the Haymarket Riot which gained popularity for them.
Haymarket Square Incident
This happened when people were protesting (during the time labor unions started rising up), and there was a bomb thrown at policemen which led to more violence at a later rally in Chicago. The protesters strike and the union was linked with the violence (Knights of Labor); both immediately failed.
This was a strike in 1892 at Carnegie's steel plant outside of Pittsburgh. Pinkerton detectives were hired to protect the scab workers-who were attacked in the early morning scruffle. The strikers fired, and the union was broken again as troops were sent to protect the factory.
American Federation of Labor
In 1886, this organization was created to organize only skilled labor, and it was led by Samuel Gompers. They had three goals which were to get companies to recognize unions and agree to collective bargaining, push for closed shops (where companies could only hire union members), and promote an eight hour workday. The majority of workers, however, were still unorganized.
Where a company could only hire union members.
This incident happened in 1894 which was during the time of the American Railway Union. It was led by Eugene Debs, and it was organized at Rail Car Company. There was a strike launched after three workers were unfairly fired. It tied up the railroad, and it paralyzed the economy. President Grover Cleveland sent in troops, and directed the Union to halt the strike.
He was part of the American Railway Union and organized a strike at the Pullman Rail Car Company because three workers were unfairly treated.
A federal court order.
By 1900, 18% of workers were women. They worked as domestic servants, teachers, nurses, sales clerks, and secretaries. They were paid less than men, and most unions excluded women.
These workers had special skills and training. They received higher wages, and some examples of the jobs they might have are machinists or glass blowers.
These workers had very few skills and lower wages.
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