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State and Local Government chapter 8
Terms in this set (124)
What state unemployment rate has experienced the sharpest shift to 5.9% today from 15.4% in 2009
Austin and San Antonio
Among major cities, only what cities had lower unemployment rates in Jan 2016 than they did in Jan 2000
lowest unemployment rate of 2.7
Nassau County, NY
(population 1.3 million) has 67 volunteer fire departments with more than 7,500 firefighters
All but 60 are volunteers
reported 15% over age 65 compared to 13% in state
median income is is $4,000 higher than state and state is $4,000 higher than US
"Professionalizing" Nassau County firefighting would make it the single largest line item in the county budget.
Value of national cost savings by fire protection being off budget was estimated at how much in 2010
most in rural areas
Towns and Townships
General purpose local governments
Number of counties
Number of municipalities
Number of towns and townships
Single Purpose local governments
Number of school districts
Number of special districts
Total number of local governments
"political subdivisions with which a municipal corporation has been established under state law to provide general local government for a specific population concentration in a defined area, and includes all active government units officially designated as cities, boroughs (except in Alaska), towns (except in the six New England States, and in Minnesota, New York, and Wisconsin) and villages."
commonly called cities or towns
Town or Township Government
The distinction between municipal and township governments is based primarily on the historical circumstances. Their responsibilities and the degree of autonomy vary based on each state. The Bureau of Census applies the term "town or township governments" to governments in 20 states
are authorized in state constitutions and statutes and provide general government services.
Forty-eight of the fifty states have county governments, although they are called parishes in Louisiana and boroughs in Alaska.
Connecticut and Rhode Island
the two states without functioning county governments
established by Constitution or state law
apply to the state legislature for articles of incorporations (charter)
Functions performed by Counties
Assessment of property (for tax and other purposes)
Record keeping (property and vital statistics)
Maintenance of rural roads (outside of city limits)
also taking on other duties such as child welfare, consumer protection, economic development, employment/training, planning and zoning, water quality, etc.
tend to work on all of the problems associated with higher population densities:
Water and air quality
NC Extra-Territorial Jurisdiction
Extends ½ - 3 miles around city boundary
School district governments
are organized local entities providing public elementary, secondary, and/or higher education.
The Census of Governments only counts independent school districts, which are the sole form of public schools in 33 states.
Twelve other states have a mix of independent schools and other schools that are agencies of the county, municipal or state government.
Alaska, Hawaii, Maine, and New Jersey
only have state-dependent school systems
Some public schools
have some or all of their board members appointed by the mayor and/or governor, according to the Education Commission on the States.
independent, special-purpose governmental units that exist as separate entities with substantial administrative and fiscal independence from general-purpose governments. They provide specific services that are not being supplied by the general-purpose governments such as fire protection, water supply, or sewerage services. In some cases, they have separate authority to tax and levy fees.
Types of Municipalities
Municipalities- Mayor-Council Form
Popular in large cities (over 250K) and small cities (under 10K)
Strong Mayor and Weak Mayor
Municipalities- Council-Manager Form
First used in Staunton, VA and Dayton, OH
Municipalities- Commission Form
First used in Galveston, TX
Types of Counties
Most popular form
Counties- Council-Elected Executive
In largest population counties
Executive is independently elected
Popular in NC
Administrator is hired
Unreformed city structure
Reformed city Structure
Manager or Commission
Merit systems/ professionalized bureaucracy
Strong Mayor Model
fewest counties (3)
most counties (254)
the largest local level of government below the state, currently used in 48 states
a local level of government within counties that are usually organized around population centers
a local level of government below the county used primarily in 20 northeastern states
a large city or municipality that serves as an economic and cultural center for a region
the larger area surrounding a metropolis that is heavily influenced by the metropolis, generally consisting of suburbs and other smaller cities
a community on the fringe or an urban area, defined by relatively high levels of commuting to the urban area, low housing density, and high population growth
counties are called parishes
counties are called boroughs
Loving County, Texas
had 82 inhabitants in the 2010 census
Los Angeles County, CA
largest population country
traditional functions of counties
law enforcement, highway construction and maintenance, tax collection and property assessment, recording of legal papers, and administration of welfare programs
counties have taken over from the states such urban functions as transportation, water and sewer operation, and land use planning
least active in the New England states, where the county is often little more than a judicial and law enforcement district.
county commission or board of supervisors
most have 3 to 7 members, but more in larger counties.
Administer state laws, levy taxes, appropriate money, issue bonds, sign contracts on behalf of the county, and handle whatever jobs the state laws and constitution assign to them.
Most best both legislative authority (the power to enact local ordinances and state budgets) and executive powers (the administration of policies and the hiring and firing of county employees)
more than what percent of counties assign executive responsibilities to either an elected or appointed individual
Arkansas, Kentucky, and Tennessee
mandate that their counties have a single elected top executive
In most states
towns are governed by elected officials typically including a supervisor, town board, and clerk
has 209 towns that use a pure town meeting system of democracy
towns of 6,000 residents or fewer must adopt a town meeting form of government
a constitutional arrangement in which power is concentrated in a central government
state constitutional authorization for local governments to conduct their own affairs
the power a government has to take private land to use for a public purpose
US super cities
New York, LA, and Chicago
a city "constitution" that outlines the structure of city government, defines the authority of the various officials, and provides for their selection
the city council is usually a single chamber with the size varying from as few as 2 members to as many as 50, although 7 is the median size in cities with more than 5,000 people
the oldest and most common form of city government, consisting of either a weak mayor and a city council or a strong mayor elected by voters and council.
weak mayor-council form
mayors are often chosen from members of the elected city council rather than elected directly by the people.
The mayor's appointive powers are usually restricted, and the city council as a whole generally possesses both legislative and executive authority.
The may must usually obtain the council's consent for all major decisions.
These often permit direct election by the voters of a number of department heads, such as police chief or controller.
Strong mayor-council form
a form of local government in which the voters directly elect the city council and the mayor, who enjoys nearly total administrative authority and appoints the department heads
Administers the budget, enjoys almost total administrative authority, and has the power to appoint and dismiss department heads
a form of local government in which the city council hires a professional administrator to manage city affairs also known as the city-manager plan
council usually elected in nonpartisan primaries and elections, either on a citywide basis or by election districts much larger than the wards in mayor-council cities
council appoints a city manager and supervises the manager's activities.
the mayor is expected to preside over the council and represent the city on ceremonial occasions, but many mayors can sometimes be a strong policy and political leader as well as a dominant influence in exercising political power.
voters elect city council who appoints/hires city manager who appoints department heads (public safety, public works, finance, parks and rec)
percent of cities in California that use council-manager
used by fewer than 2 percent of cities with populations over 2500
firs used in Galveston, Texas.
voters elect commissioner for public safety, commissioner for public works, commissioner for finance, commissioner for parks and rec
largest city still using the commission form of government
credited with professionalizing city government in skilled administrators
strong mayor form coming back where
Formally council-manager system but . . .
Mayor elected at-large
One council member elected at-large
Five council members elected from districts
Chief Administrative Officer
an official, hired by the mayor, who administers the day-to-day workings of the city staff in a strong mayor-council form of government
Like city manager but reports to mayor instead of city council
Used in largest cities in US (NYC)
Hybrids- Council-Manager Forms
Council (Mayor)- Manager
Mayor appointed by council
Least mayoral control
Mayor directly elected, Manager appointed by council
Empowered Mayor-Council Manager
Mayor directly elected
Manager appointed by mayor
Hybrids- Mayor-Council Forms
Mayor and Council-Administrator
Mayor and Council-Administrator
CAO appointed by council
Mayor appoints CAO
CAO approved by council
Mayor hires CAO
Most Mayor control
need for strong mayoral leadership
developed in late 19th century as means to deal with the social revolution brought on by urbanization, massive waves of immigration, and mounting economic problems of growing cities.
college graduate, a business or legal professional, and an experienced grassroots politician between 40 and 50 years old.
largest cities earn 90 to 216,000 dollars and 40-80,000 in middle-sized citiies.
supervise the line agencies- police, fire public safety, traffic, health, and sanitation- as well as a host of special agencies such as the board of elections, the city planning agency and commissions that regulate particular occupations and professions.
fastest growing metropolitan areas
used by cities to recapture part of the tax base that escapes to the suburbs by imposing these local payroll or other types of what to obtain revenue from people who work in the central cities and make frequent use of city facilities yet live outside the city.
Detroit and Cleveland
have some of the highest child poverty rates, more than half of all children
Virginia Beach and San Francisco
fewer than one in eight children were in poor households
Atlanta, Kansas City, and Newark
using gentrification to get new residents
Metropolitan Statistical Area
a geographical region of at least 50,000 people with high population density in its urbanized core and a high degree of social and economic integration between its outlying counties and the core
gradual change in property ownership with wealthier people buying property and moving into neighborhoods, leading to the revitalization of the area but also displacement of the less affluent former inhabitants
writer for the Washington post that coined the term "edge cities" and suggests that virtually ever expanding US city is growing in the fashion of Los Angeles, with multiple urban cores.
Tysons Corner, Virginia
Perimeter Center In Atlanta
Galleria area in Houston
Schaumburg area in Chicago
Mall of America
Examples of edge cities
edge cities sometimes ran by these private owners who set the fees for policing, transportation, and various other services that are normally financed by taxes
many of the people in edge cities live in these where access is limited to residents or guests
Often provide own police and fire protection services
"Secession of the successful?"
Study in California showed higher voter turnout in gated communities that other parts of state
agreements to furnish services
regional coordinating and planning councils
strategies to govern metropolitan regions
when one (typically large) city absorbs neighboring areas into it. Supporters argue that the resulting larger single government reduces duplication and facilitates solving problems that used to cross municipal borders.
Extraterritorial Jurisdiction (ETJ)
agreements to furnish services
most common solution to the problems of overlapping and duplicating jurisdictions is for the units of government to contract for services, a practice called outsourcing.
City may provide hospital services to its neighbors or contract with the country for law enforcement.
Port Authority of NYC and New Jersey
Tennessee Valley Authority
established to undertake specialized functions in their regions.
Have a legal mandate granted by the state (or states) to raise money, hire experts, and take over some city services, such as transportation, water, and housing.
units of government typically established to provide one or more specific services, such as sewage disposal, fire protection, water supply, or pollution control for a local or regional area.
many volunteer fire protection districts are these within a state
Often created to enable an existing unit of government to evade tax and debt limits and to spread the tax burden over a wider area than individual municipalities or counties
Usually have governing boards appointed by officials of other governments or elected by the general public. Useful for dealing with urgent problems that overlap boundaries of existing local government units.
regional coordinating and planning councils
nearly all metro regions have some kind of council of government (COG)
bring locally elected officials together and devote most of their time and resources to physical planning.
set up to give suburbs a veto over virtually any project that would threaten their autonomy
pet reform of business elites, the League of Women Voters, and Chambers of Commerce, who view it as a rational, efficient way to simplify administration, cut costs for taxpayers, and eliminate duplication.
Over 30 in US
Memphis - Shelby County (TN) rejected by voters in 2010
city-county consolidation cities
Memphis and Shelby County, Tennessee
city-county consolidation rejected by voters in 2010
council of government (COG)
began in the 1950s ans were encouraged by the national government.
Bring locally elected officials together and do not tackle problems of race, poverty and financial inequities in metro regions
Critics say these councils rarely provide for a creative area-wide governance, yet they serve as an important common ground for elected officials to talk a bout mutual problems, and they help solve problems in many of the regions
Pioneered in Los Angeles Area
Mutual aid agreements are related
attempts to take political realities into account by building on existing governments but assigning some crucial functions to an area-wide metro government.
Twin Cities Metropolitan Council for the Minneapolis-St. Paul region (appointed by governor)
Twin Cities Metropolitan Council
established by legislature in 1967 and consists of 17 member council.
16 members appointed by the governor to represent equal-population districts, while the remaining member is a full-time executive who serves at the pleasure of the governor
countless people coming together in their own neighborhoods to tackle common problems or to form neighborhood cooperatives
Pressing Issues for Cities
Planning and Land Use
Extraterrestrial Jurisdiction (ETJ)
At-large or district-based
this size city that elects members affiliated with political parties generally choose them by small districts or wards rather than at-large
generally growth not typically planned and such their boundaries cross physical barriers such as rivers and political barriers such as state boundaries.
Halfway between Richmond and DC
Home of University of Mary Washington and several Civil War battlefields
Population increased by 64% between 1980 (17,762) and 2015 (28,118)
By 2012 had become part of greater DC metropolitan area with commuter rail and carpool links to downtown DC
DC metropolitan area
composed of DC, five counties in Maryland, ten counties and six independent cities in Virginia, one county in West Virginia
board of county commissioners
most common government form at the county level is what
larger urban counties
these are moving to council-administrator or council-elected executive plans
fastest-growing population areas in the US for several decades
South and West
metropolitan areas which are big cities and their suburbs are growing most rapidly where
the most common government forms at this level are mayor-council and council-manager (city-manager) plans
generally have a strong mayor elected by voters, although some have weak mayor elected by council
mayors of major cities
play many roles including administering large city bureaucracies, working with the private sector and even foreign governments to spur economic development, and influencing policy making in the city
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