Anxiety, irritability, chills and hot flashes, joint pain, lacrimation, rhinorrhea, diaphoresis, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, confusion Before beginning therapy, perform a thorough history regarding allergies and use of other medications, including alcohol, health history, and medical history
Obtain baseline vital signs and I&O
Assess for potential contraindications and drug interactions
Perform a thorough pain assessment, including pain intensity and character, onset, location, description, precipitating and relieving factors, type, remedies, and other pain treatments
Pain is now considered a "fifth vital sign"
Rate pain on a 0 to 10 or similar scale
Be sure to medicate patients before the pain becomes severe so as to provide adequate analgesia and pain control
Pain management includes pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic approaches; be sure to include other interventions as indicated