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67 terms

Unit 1 AP US history test

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Lord Baltimore
founded Maryland- prominent English Catholic family- wanted refuge for Catholics- awarded estates to Catholic relatives- helped pass Act of Toleration- helped protect Catholics from protestant immigrants
James Oglethorpe
Found George- military leader- interested in prison reform- repelled Spanish attacks from Georgia- used his own money to support Georgia
royal charter
king gives person land in a different place
slave codes
defined the slaves' legal status and how their masters could treat them- colony slave codes were based on Barbados slave code which denied fundamental rights to slaves
primogeniture
law in Englad that said only the eldest sons could inherit land estates and the younger sons had to find their own way- spread through out the colonies
indentured servants
migrants who bound themselves to a colonial employer for four to seven years in order to migrate to the Americas
house of Burgesses
assembly established in Virginia- Fitzhughs, Lees, and Washingtons dominated it- led the way for all colonies to have central committees
Treaty of Tordesillas
divided the New World between Portugal and Spain
Act of Toleration
guaranteed toleration to Christians in Maryland but gave the death penalty to Jews and atheists- brought Catholic immigrants to Maryland
Virginia Company
joint stock company that received a charter for land in the New World and made a charter that guaranteed overseas settlers the same rights of Englishmen that they would have enjoyed if they stayed in england- founded Jamestown- authorized House of Burgesses
Anne Hutchinson
carried to logical extremes the Puritan doctrine of predestination- claimed holy life didn't bring salvation- banished and moved to New York where she was killed by Indians
Roger Williams
threatened Puritan leaders- extreme Separatist- wanted Clergymen to break with the Church of England and challenged the legality of Bay Colony's charter- denied authority of civil government to regulate religious behavior- banished
William Penn
English Quaker- founded Pennsylvanica- unappreciated by colonists- arrested three times for treason and thrown into debtor's prison and had a paralytic stroke
Massachusetts Bay Colony
vessel carried 1000 immigrants to this land and started a large scaled colony- first governor was John Winthrop
Navigation Laws
series of laws passed to regulate colonial shipping- only English ships could trade in English and colonial ports
Puritans
English Protestant reformers who sought to purify the Church of England of Catholic rituals and creeds
Quakers
remarkable group of dissenters who arose in England- offensive to authorities- refused to support Church of England with taxes
Mayflower Compact
agreement to form a crude government and to submit the will of the majority under the regulations agreed upon-agreed to form the government at the colony instead of Virginia
Ben Franklin
wrote Poor Richard's Almanac- convinced France to support Americas- signed the Treaty of Paris
1st Great Awakening
ignited religions and started in Massachusetts by Jonathon Edwards- more American churches opened- first mass movement by American people- brought a sense of unity
Bacon's Rebellion
less indentured slaves and more slavery
Head right system
used by Virginia and Maryland- encouraged importation of servant workers
Proclamation of 1763
prohibited settlement beyond the Appalachians- made to work out the INdian problem fairly and prevent an uprising- Americans moved west in protest
boycott
voluntarily abstaining from using, buying, or dealing with a person organization, or country to show protest- Americans boycotted tea
royal veto
right of the king to veto legislation
mercenaries
making money at the expense of ethics- soldier who takes part in a conflict/war whose country is not involved in the conflict
Washington
founding father- architect of American Government- from Virginia- brilliant military leader
Lord North
King George III's Prime Minister- government of Lord North persuaded Parliament to repeal Townshend revenue duties- said it was all over at Yorktown even though it was not
George III
King during revolutionary war- showed his weaknesses by repealing all of his Acts and giving into the colonies
Sam Adams
antifederalist- American statesman, political philosopher, founding father, steered colonists towards revolution
Benedict Arnold
led an American force and surprised and captured British garrisons at Ticonderoga and Crown Point- left the American cause to go to the Brits- viewed as a traitor
Burgoyne
British officer- involved in the plan to capture Hudson River- his troops surrendered at Saratoga
General Nathanael Greene
Quaker- reared tactician- used strategy of delay- standing and then retreating he exhausted his foe- cleared Georgia and SC of British troops- became one of Washington's best officers
Cornwallis
led the British army that was trapped at Yorktown- surrendered at yorktown- british officer
J.P. Jones
officer- Scotsman- led naval force- succeeded in destroying British merchant shipping and carried the war into the water
Thomas Jefferson
author of Declaration of INdependence- member of the Philadelphia congress- lawyer
Marquis de LaFayette
French officer made a major general in the colonial army- helped gain support from France in the war
Patrick Henry
part of the first continental congress- radical passionate speaker- famous for "give me liberty or give me death!" in front of Virginia Assembly- Resolutions against the stamp act helped start the war
Thomas Paine
two influential pamphlets at the start of the Revolution- founding father
Common Sense
written by Thomas Paine- urged colonists to declare independence and establish a republican government
George Rogers Clark
soldier from Virginia and the highest ranking American military officer on the northwestern frontier during the revolutionary war- captured Kaskaskia and Vincennes
Battle of Quebec
First major defeat of the war for the Americans but came with costs to their army
Battle of Bunker Hill
first battle of the war- old style fighting- colonists retreat because of lack of amo- England won
Battle of Saratoga
fought in upper NY- French believed colonists might win - Benedict Arnold led the battle
Battle of Trenton
Washington won these two New Jersey victories and he was back at his military best
Battle of Yorktown
last American battle- americans trapped them with Washington and America gains freedom
Hessians
German troops hired by George III to aid the colonial insurrection- Americans resented use of paid foreign fighters
Tories/ Loyalists
Bristish North American colonists who remained loyal subjects of the British crown during the Revolution
Treaty of Paris 1763
signed to end the French and Indian war- stopped Indians from playing European powers against each other
Treaty of Paris 1783
signed in Paris by America and England giving America freedom- stretched American borders- colonies could fish off of Newfindland- colonies agreed to support loyalists
1st continental congress
convention of delegates from twelve British colonies that met early in the American Revolution for a response to the Intolerable Acts
2nd continental congress
convention of delegates from 13 colonies in Philadelphia after warfare had begun- adopted the Declaration of Independence
Boston Massacre
Clash between Bostonian protestors and British redcoats who fired on the jeering crowd kill or wounding 11
mercantilism
export more than you import as a mother country
salutary neglect
unofficial policy of relaxed royal control over colonial trade and weak enforcement of Navigation Laws- lasted until end of French and INdian War
Sons of Liberty
patriotic groups that played a central role in agitating against the Stamp Act and enforcing non-importation agreements
Boston Tea Party
protest against the British East India Company's newly acquired monopoly on the tea trade- colonists dumped tea into Boston harbor and Parliament put the Intolerable acts on them
Albany Congress
intercolonial congress summoned by the British government to foster greater colonial unity and assure Iroquois support in the escalating war against the french
olive branch petition
continental congress adopted this because the colonies didnt want war and the Americans professed loyalty to the crown and begged the king to not go to war and King George and Parliament refused
Sugar Act
increased tax on foreign sugar imported form the west indies; 1st law passed for raising taxes in the colonies for the crown
Quatering Act
required colonies to provide food and quarters for British troops
Stamp Act
mandated the use of stamped paper or the affixing of stamps, certifying payment of tax, was placed on all paper, money was used to support the British army- passed without colonial legislature
Declaratory Act
reaffirmed Parliament's right to bind the colonies in all cases whatsoever- basically told the colonies England was in charge- showed weakness on England's part
Townshend Acts
import tax on glass, white lead, paper, paint and tea- indirect customs tax payable at American ports- paid for royal governors and judges in America- brought the Boston Massacre
Quebec Act
England gave French Catholics land in order to control the colonies from expanding west
intolerable acts
designed to punish Boston and Massachusetts for the Boston Tea Party and most of the rights of colonial Massachusetts were taken away: town meetings etc
Albany Plan
proposed by Ben Franklin at the Albany Congress in order to form a union amongst the colonies and it was vetoed by the English- helped write the articles of confederation