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LAST KIN345 TEST
Terms in this set (171)
mental effort placed on sensory or mental events. persons ability to exert deliberate mental effort on what is most important in given situation
selecting what cues to attend to and disregard
athletes ability to understand what is going around him. size up game situations, opponents, and comparisons to make appropriate decisions based on situation, often under acute pressure and time demands.
associative attentional strategy
monitoring bodily functions and feelings such as heart rate, muscle tension, and breathing rate
dissociative attentional strategy
not monitoring on bodily functions; distractions and tuning out
information is processed through a single and fixed capacity channel
individuals are flexible and can choose where to focus their attention, allocating it on more than one task at a time
attention is distributed throughout nervous system and each microprocessors has its own unique capabilities and resource-performance relationship. (ex: driving a car and talking on phone)
attention is limited in amount of information that can be processed at one time
increases in emotional arousal narrow the attentional field.
mental processing that involves conscious attention and awareness of what you are doing when you perform a sport skill
mental processing without conscious attnetion
attentional capacity theory
athletes can change from controlled processing to automatic processing as they become more proficient
-automatic processing is less restrictive than controlled processing
elite athlete peak performance is associated with:
-being absorbed in present/ no thoughts of past or future
-being mentally relaxed and having high degree of concentration/control
-being in state of extraordinary awareness of both body and external environment
increases in emotional arousal narrow the attentional field
concentration and optimal performance
-focus on only the relevant cues in athletic environment and eliminate distractions
-ability to automatically process or execute movements is critical in performance environments
broad attentional focus
allows a person to perceive several occurrences simultaneously. important to rapidly changing environment (ex: soccer player dribbling ball upfield)
narrow attentional focus
respond to only 1 or 2 cues, as when a baseball batter prepares to swing at a pitch
external attentional focus
direct attention outward to an object (Ex: puck in hockey)
internal attentional focus:
directed inward to thoughts and feelings, as when a coach analyzes plays without having to physically perform
-attending to past events
-attenting to future events
-choking under pressure
-overanalysis of body mechanics
attentional process that leads to impaired performance and inability to retain control over performances without outside assistance
(performers exhibiting conscious step-by-step execution of skills and a breakdown of automated movement patterns)
visual and auditory distractions
conscious processing hypothesis
choking occurs when skilled performers focus too much of their conscious attention to the task, much as they would do if they were a novice at the task
(performance decreases only with increased focus on several task-relevant cues)
any statement or thought about self. helps focus on the present and keeps mind from wandering
(positive, negative, neutral)
concentrating on the undesired thought briefly and then using a cue or trigger to stop a thought and clear your mind.
people who concentrate well deal with simultaneous stimuli from external and internal sources without getting overloaded and can narrow attentional focus without leaving important information
easily confused by multiple stimuli
elite athletes can use to prepare
used to trigger particular response and are really form of self-talk. should be either instructional or motivational to help focus on task at hand
exercise positively influences feelings of
well-being, decreases anxiety & depression
acute effects of exercise
-lower state anxiety and higher tranquility scores
-moderate-intensity exercise produced the greatest positive effects in affective response
-all durations of exercise significantly reduce anxiety, larger effects for up to 30 min.
-reductions in muscle tension
-occurs regardless of type, duration, intensity
-similiar to magnitude of other commonly used anxiety treatments
chronic effects of exercise
-positive well being and mental health
-reduction of stress emotions such as state anxiety
-reduction in neurticism and anxiety
-reduction in resting HR, some stress hormones
-NOT cause-effect relationship
EFFECTIVE AS PSYCHOTHERAPY IN REDUCING DEPRESSION
psysiological explanation of exercise on well being
-increases in cerebral blood flow
-changes in brain neurotransmitters
-increases in brain nuerotransmitters
-structural changes in brain
-reductions in muscle tension
psychological explanation of exercise on well being
-enhanced feeling of control
-feeling of compentcyi and self-efficacy
-positive social interactions
-improved self-concept and self-esteem
positive effects of exercise and people with
HIV, ms, cancer, parkisions
personality disposition that involves sense of personal control, commitment and purpose, flexibility to adapt to unexpected changes.
quality of life
persons behavioral functioning ability-being able to do everyday stuff and living long enough to do it
-physicaly active report better quality of life
-few distractions; cool/calm weather/at least 30 min.
exercise and mirrors
-women who are generally sedentary who have poor perception of self tend to focus more on own physique
-not negative effect on social physique anxiety with women who are generally more active and confident in ability to do exercise
-depends on women exercising
encourage exercise as...
adjunct to other forms of therapy
-multimodal approach more effective than single intervention
health belief model
likelihood of exercising depends on persons perception of the severity of health risks and appraisal of the costs and benefits of taking action
theory of planned behavior
exercise behavior is made up of intentions, subjective norms and attitudes, and perceptions of ability to control behavior
what is normative regarding behavior
social cognitive theory
exercise behavior is influenced by both personal and environmental factors, particularly self-efficacy.
people are inherently motivated to feel connected to others within a social milieu/environment (relatedness), to function effectively in that environment (effectance) and to feel a sense of personal initiative in doing so (autonomy)
1. Precontemplation: Does not exercise
2. Contemplation: Has fleeting thoughts of exercising
3. Preparation: Exercises, but not regularly enough
4. Action: Has been exercising regularly, but for less than 6 months
5. Maintenance: Has been exercising regularly for more than 6 months
6. Termination: Once exercises have exercised for 5 years
physical activity maintenance model
Key aspects to predicting the maintenance of physical activity:
Goal setting: Commitment attainment, satisfaction
Self-motivation: Persistence in the pursuit of behavioral goals independent of any situational constraints
Self-efficacy: Confidence to overcome barriers and avoid relapse
Physical activity environment: Access, attractiveness, enjoyable scenery, social support
Life stress: Recent life changes, everyday hassles
examine framework versus specific variables
-how environment and behaviors affect each other
Participants keep written records of their physical activity.
An intervention to increase the likelihood of a client's considering, initiating, and maintaining specific strategies to reduce harmful behavior via an interview.
Motivation to change is elicited from the client rather than the counselor.
Client-counselor relationship is more of a partnership.
Verbal, physical, or symbolic cues initiate behaviors (e.g., posters encouraging people to take the stairs, placing running shoes by bed).
Participants enter into a contract with their exercise practitioners.
prompts can be gradually eliminated
focus is on internal body feedback (how muscle feel/breathing)
distration on external environment
decision balance sheet
technique can make people aware of potential benefits and costs of an exercise program
need for social support greatest when setbacks occur or when other life demands place additional stress on athletes.
-athletes generally turn to coaches and medical professionals for informational support and to family and friends
athletes who become injured follow:
5. acceptance and reorganization
primary cause of injury
trauma to the body or its parts that results in at least temporary, but sometimes physical perfanent, physical disability and inhibition of motor function (multifaceted)
how injuries happen?
-physical factors: muscle imbalance, high-speed collisions, overtraining
-stress: history and coping influence the onset of injuries, as does an athletes psychological skills
-social factors: perception by performers that playing with pain and injury is seen as highly valued in our society
-personality factors: not successfully identified
-stress levels: high levels of stress have more sport- and exercise- related injuries
Attentional disruption: Stress disrupts an athlete's attention by reducing peripheral attention and causing distraction and task-irrelevant thoughts.
Increased muscle tension: High stress can cause muscle tension and coordination interference as well as generalized fatigue, muscle inefficiency, reduced flexibility, and motor coordination problems.
Psychological stress increases
catecholamines and glucocorticoids, which impair the movement of healing immune cells to the site of the injury and interfere with the removal of damaged tissue.
psychological reactions to exercise
Three general categories of emotional reactions to being injured
1. Injury-relevant information processing
2. Emotional upheaval and reactive behaviors
3. Positive outlook, coping
-fear and anxiety
-lack of confidence
Understand the three-phase process of rehabilitation and recovery:
1. Injury or illness phase
2. Rehabilitation and recovery phase
3. Return to full activity phase
A person who has a rapport with the affected individual should schedule a private meeting to discuss the matter.
Emphasize feelings rather than directly focusing on eating behaviors.
Be supportive of athlete and treatment recommendations and keep all information confidential.
Consistently show concern for athlete as a person.
Avoid using the term eating disorder.
Make and have ready potential referrals to a specific clinic or person.
An intense fear of becoming obese
A disturbed body image
A significant weight loss
The refusal to maintain normal body weight
The suicide risk of those affected is 50% higher than that of the general population.
Affected people don't see themselves as abnormal.
is an episodic eating pattern of uncontrollable food bingeing followed by purging and is characterized by the following:
An awareness that the pattern is abnormal
Fear of being unable to stop eating voluntarily
Condition is severe but less severe than anorexia.
Bulimia can lead to anorexia.
Bulimic people are aware that they have a problem.
entire spectrum of exaggerated eating patterns involving increased health risks
predisposing factors of eating disorder
Weight restrictions and standards
Coach and peer pressure
is a maladaptive pattern of psychoactive substance use indicated by one of two patterns of use:
1. Continued use despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurring social, occupational, psychological, or physical problem caused or exacerbated by use of the psychoactive substance.
2. Recurrent use in situations in which use is physically hazardous. Some symptoms of disturbance have persisted for at least 1 month or have occurred repeatedly over a longer period.
a state in which either discontinuing or continual use of a drug creates an overwhelming desire, need, and craving for more of the substance.
performance enhancing drugs most common
2. Narcotic analgesics
3. Anabolic steroids
6. Peptide hormones and analogues
Drugs in Sport Decision Model (DSDM)
The DSDM consists of three components:
1. The costs of a decision to use
2. The benefits associated with using
3. Specific situational factors that may affect the cost-benefit analysis of using
arguments to legalize steroids in professional sports
Spectators like the higher level of athletic performance.
Increase interest in sports (e.g., games sell out, athletic apparel sales increase).
It is easier for sport organizations to manage anti-doping policies.
Athletes already undertake serious health risks by participating in sports.
It no longer matters whether an athlete is using PEDs if he or she does really well or looks really strong.
A psychological or physiological dependence on a regular regimen of exercise that is characterized by withdrawal symptoms after 24 to 36 hours without exercise
Positive addiction to exercise
A condition in which exercise is viewed as important in one's life but is successfully integrated with other aspects of life (healthy habit)
negative addiction to exercise
A condition in which life becomes structured around exercise to such an extent that home and work responsibilities suffer
primary exercise dependence
Exercise is an end in itself, although it may include altered eating behaviors for the purpose of enhancing performance.
secondary exercise dependence
Exercise is a symptom of another primary pathological condition, such as an eating disorder
athletes training and learning to avoid steroids
athletes targeting healthy exercise and nutrition alternatives
enviromental factors affecting adherance?
People exercising in groups display higher adherence than people exercising alone.
People who perceive their exercise leader as knowledgeable and likable exhibit higher levels of adherence.
According to research on adherence to exercise programs, what percentage of individuals starting an exercise program are likely to drop out after six months?
The number one barrier to physical activity is
lack of time
The three basic constructs in self-determination theory are
relatedness, autonomy, effectance
Which of the following statements is true of the use of a decision balance sheet?
It involves sensitizing potential exercise participants to the positive and negative outcomes of participating in an exercise program
Which of the following findings using behavior modification approaches to exercise adherence is true?
People willing to sign a statement of intent to comply with the exercise program had significantly better attendance than those refusing to sign such a statement.
Individuals given a choice concerning the activities they participated in had higher levels of adherence than individuals who were not given a choice.
According to the ecological model, the key aspect of this model is
Forecasting bias refers to
believing exercise will be less enjoyable than it actually is
According to Kirschenbaum (2010), the treatment of childhood obesity should include
-cognitive behavior therapy
Garner and Rosen recommend that if a coach suspects an athlete has an eating disorder, the coach should
discuss her concerns with the athlete in a private meeting
According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V), which of the following is characteristic of bulimia?
-recurrent episodes of binge eating in a discrete period of time
-a feeling of lack of control over eating behavior during eating binges
Which of the following is a symptom of a person who is negatively addicted to exercise?
-decreased tolerance to the amount of exercise performed
-exercise is given increased priority over other activities
sign of substance abusers
-major change in personality
-poor hygiene and grooming
The rate of steroid use in high schools has increased from 1 in 27 in 1999 to what in 2003?
1 in 16
A review article (Striegel-Moore & Bulik, 2007) discussing the influence of environmental and genetic factors on the development of eating disorders concluded
the interaction of genetic and environmental factors needs to be explored
The ATLAS and ATHENA programs focus on
reducing substance abuse and poor nutrition among high school boys and girls
The term bigorexia refers to a condition in which
males want to bulk up and thus are prone to steroid use
Some people believe that performance-enhancing drugs should be legalized in professional
-Players would be performing at an even higher level, which spectators like.
-It would lead to greater interest in sports, resulting in more money spent on game attendance and related merchandise.
-Inconsistencies in administering drug policies would be eliminated.
Which of the following would be classified as a reactive aggressive act?
punching an umpire because he made a bad call
Instrumental aggression is aggression occurring
in the quest of some nonaggressive goal
4 prominent theories of aggression?
social learning theory
revised frustration-aggression theory
Research on game reasoning (also called bracketed morality) has shown that
athletes view aggressive acts that would be judged inappropriate in society in general as more a
General strategies for controlling spectator aggression include which of the following?
Develop strict alcohol control policies.
Immediately penalize spectators for aggressive acts
When David Stern, commissioner of the National Basketball Association, banned Latrell Sprewell for choking his coach, he stated, "A sports league does not have to accept or condone behavior that would not be tolerated in any other segment of society." In this statement Stern clearly indicated that _________ morality would not be accepted or tolerated.
The International Society of Sport Psychology developed a position paper on aggression in sport. Wwhat are recommendations?
-Ensure adequate facilities and space.
-Ban alcoholic beverages at sporting events
-Athletic personnel should take part in workshops on aggression and violence.
-Raise the level of coaching, with an emphasis on fair play, especially with younger athletes
The general aggression model proposes that the probability of aggression increases because of
an interaction of situations and personal beliefs
In a recent study by Amiot and colleagues (2013) on aggressive fan behavior in sport, they found that fans who find pleasure in engaging in derogatory behaviors in sport do so because
it affirms a positive group identity
: The deliberate strategy of exposing athletes to high-volume and high-intensity training loads that are followed by a lower training load (a rest or taper)
A short cycle of training during which athletes expose themselves to excessive training loads that are near maximum capacity
The physiological state of overtraining in which the athlete has difficulty maintaining standard training regimens and can no longer achieve previous performance results
A psychophysiological response due to frequent but generally ineffective efforts to meet excessive demands, involving a psychological, emotional, and sometimes physical withdrawal from an activity in response to excessive stress or dissatisfaction
characteristics of burnout
exhaustion, depersonalization, feeling of low personal accomplishment
models of burnout
Cognitive-affective stress model
Negative-training stress response model
Unidimensional identity development and external control model
Commitment and entrapment theory
cognitive-affective stress model
4 stage process
-cogntiive appraisal of the situation
Negative-Training Stress Response Model
Focuses on physical training (but recognizes the importance of psychological factors).
Physical training stresses the athlete physically and psychologically and can have positive and negative effects.
Positive adaptation is desirable.
Negative adaptation is undesirable (leads to overtraining, staleness, and burnout).
Unidimensional Identity Development and External Control Model
For Coakley (1992) stress is involved in burnout, but it is only a symptom.
The real causes of burnout deal with faulty identity development and external control of young athletes.
The structure of sport prevents young athletes from spending enough time with peers outside of sport.
This causes a sole focus on identifying with athletic success, which can be unhealthy, especially when failure or injury occurs.
The social worlds of young athletes are organized in such a way that their control and decision making are inhibited.
commitment and entrapment theory
Burnout is explained within the context of sport commitment.
Burnout occurs when athletes become entrapped in sport and feel they must play even though they lose motivation for participation.
People have three basic psychological needs: autonomy, competence, and relatedness.
Those who do not have these basic needs met will be more prone to burnout.
factors related to burnout
Type A personality
Role conflict and ambiguity
Making bad calls
Role conflict and ambiguity
Meslach Burnout Inventory
used for professionals to measure burnout
Children with low perceptions of their athletic abilities drop out or do not participate in sport, whereas children with high perceptions of their competence participate and persist.
are young athletes placed under too much stress?
No. The majority of young athletes are not under excessive stress (less than 10% are).
stages of athletic talent development
Entry (initial) phase
Elite performance excellence phase
Excellence maintenance phase
importance of studying psychology of young athlete
vital bc critical point in development cycles
major reason children participate in sport?
-being with friends
*athlete need to feel worthy and competent...then seek out participation, stay involved
why children drop out?
new or additional interest in other activities
-lack of fun
• peer relationship in youth sports?
-level of motivation
adult leaders should provide time to be with friends/make freinds/encourage positive peer reinformcemtn/teamwork
stress and burnout in youth sports
o high trait anxiety
o low self-esteem
o low self-performance expectations
o frequent worry about evaluation
o less fun and satisfaction
o parental pressure
o loosing competiotn/great importance to event
o stress induced burnout: specialized withdrawl in which young athlete discoutnines invovlemnt in response to long-term stress
major motive that children have for sport participation
effective coaching for young athletes
realistic expecations, positive/encouragning/sincere feedback, rewarding effort and correct technique as much as outcome, modifying sill requirement and reules, positive approach to error correction
Any form of behavior directed toward the goal of harming or injuring another living being who is motivated to avoid such treatment
hostile or reactive agression
The primary goal is to inflict injury or psychological harm on another.
Occurring in the quest of some nonaggressive goal.
People have an instinct to be aggressive, which builds up until it must be expressed (directly or via catharsis).
There is no support for this theory.
released or blown off
Aggression is the direct result of a frustration that occurs because of goal blockage or failure.
There is no support for this hypothesis.
social learning theory
Aggression is learned through observing others (modeling) and then having similar behavior reinforced.
Revised frustration-aggression theory
Combines elements of frustration-aggression theory with social learning theory.
Frustration does not always lead to aggression. It increases the likelihood of aggression by increasing arousal, anger, and other thoughts, feelings, and emotions. Increased arousal and anger result in aggression only when socially learned cues signal the appropriateness of aggression in the situation.
There is support for this theory.
Many athletes view aggression as inappropriate in general but appropriate in the sport environment. This is called bracketed morality.
general agression model
Aggression occurs as a result of a complex process mediated by one's thoughts, feelings, and emotions and resulting from the interaction of numerous personal and situational factors.
There is support for this model.
implications for practice:
-Recognize when aggression is most likely to occur: When people are frustrated and aroused (often when losing or when they perceive unfair officiating, are embarrassed, are physically in pain, or are playing below capabilities).
Control aggression via stress or emotion management training.
Keep winning in perspective.
Distinguish between aggression and assertive or intense play.
Teach nonviolent conflict resolution skills.
Teach appropriate behavior.
Establish team norms.
Control spectator aggression.
Control spectator aggression.
Develop strict policies on alcohol control.
Immediately penalize spectators for aggressive acts.
Hire officials who don't tolerate aggression.
Inform coaches that aggression won't be tolerated.
Work with media not to glorify aggressive acts.
bracketed morality/game reasoning
aggressive acts inappropriate unless in sport environment
Requires that all participants understand and adhere not only to the formal rules of the game but also to the spirit of cooperation and unwritten rules of play necessary to ensure that a contest is fair.
good sporting behavior
Concern and respect for the rules and officials, social conventions, and the opponent, as well as one's full commitment to one's sport and the absence of a negative approach toward participation.
Involves four interrelated virtues: compassion, fairness, good sporting behavior, and integrity.
The decision process whereby the rightness or wrongness of action is determined
The process of experience and growth through which a person develops the capacity to morally reason
The execution of an act that is deemed right or wrong
Hazing is any activity expected of someone joining a group that humiliates, degrades, abuses, or endangers that person, regardless of a person's willingness to participate.
Hazing occurs more often in contact, team, and competitive sports.
Sport keeps kids off the street because they have less interaction with delinquent others.
Children who participate in sport develop attachments with significant others who represent dominant, prosocial values.
Sport does not teach values; being labeled an athlete leads to special treatment, while being labeled a delinquent leads to a negative self-fulfilling prophecy.
Sport participation allows youngsters to gain prestige and status and reduces the strain between their dreams of a better life and beliefs about attainable goals.
related to empathy and is ability to take on and appreciate feelings of others
ability to maintain ones morality and fairness coupled with belief than one can (and will) fulfill ones moral intentions
ability to bounce back successfully after exposure to sever risk or distress
Resilient youth have a clear sense of who they are, feel they can exert control, and feel they can act independently.
The ability to interact socially with others and, by doing so, create strong networks of social support.
3 components of morality in sport:
fair play, character, and good sporting behavior
approaches to developing good sporting behavior
-social learning approach
Good sporting behavior and attitudes are learned through models, reinforcement, and social comparison.
Moral reasoning and behavior depend on how psychological growth and development change in a child and interact with the environment.
To understand morality and character, one must consider the personal elements in the structural-developmental approach plus social factors that go beyond reinforcement, modeling, and social comparison elements of the social learning approach.
moral behavior best understood from an
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