Medieval World Chapter 14-16
Terms in this set (25)
1095-1099. Military campaigns instigated by the Roman Papacy, specifically pope urban the 2nd, with the goal of putting holy lands in Palestine back under Christian rule
The separation of the Latin Catholic Church and Greek Orthodox churches following the mutual excommunication by the Roman Pope and the Byzantine patriarch in 1054
1056-1106 Conflict between the people and the Holy Roman emperor over who had the authority to appoint bishops and other church officials.
A new set of monastic orders that combined religious job of the priesthood and military training of noble warriors. Began with the Knights Templar in 1120.
A system of courts and investigators set up by the Roman papacy in the 13th century in order to punish heretics and none believers
1100-1350. A code of honor followed by knights and nobles. It stressed honor, piety, and loyalty.
1206 Chinggis: "Lord of the Steppe." Universal ruler of the steppe people. Chosen by council of Mongol Chiefs. Helped unify many of the Mongol tribes, making them more stable in an agricultural society. His legacy left behind a larger mongol Empire.
1260-1368. Instilled by Qubilai under the Yuan Empire in China. It assigned tax collection powers to individuals and groups, (mostly Muslim merchants) in exchange for fixed payments to the state. Many abused their power and demanded High payments that hurt the agrarian population.
12-13th century Holy wars. In Islam, it was fighters who declared war against non-believers. Fueled the Ottoman Empire. This was one of the first steps towards the conquest of Constantinople and the fall of the Byzantine Empire.
1347-1350. The outbreak of the plague. It spread from the much of the Black Plague, to Europe, the Middle East, and N.Africa. Killed up to a third of more of the population in areas it affected. It was highly devastating. It opened up many career opportunities after the severe population decline.
An outbreak of epidemic disease that spreads across an entire region. In the case of the Black Plague, it refers to Europe.
Little Ice Age
1320. An environmental devastation that hit, causing dramatic temperature drops leading to a decline in food production and famine. The ice age made people more susceptible to disease and added to the spread of the Black Plague.
1350-1492. Rule by a small group of individuals or families. Oligarchies happened as a result of rebuilding societies in Europe after the devastation of the plague and little ice age. They served as a way to reconfigure social structure. Especially prevalent in Italy.
Started by Zhu Yuanzhang in the Ming dynasty. It was The re-emergence and re-formulation of Confucian doctrines to reassert moral duty to society. It helped re-establish more traditional Chinese values into Chinese society from from the 12th-20th centuries.
1350-1500. A state subject to religious authority. Many of the Islamic empires had theocracies set in place, seriously influencing the stability and control that the Islamic empire had over its territories.
1354-1453. Slave soldiers who served a the principle armed forces of the Ottoman Empire beginning in the 15th century. Made up a large number of the Ottoman state bureaucracy. Helped spread the influence of the Islamic empire as well as gain loyalty because many of their impositions were less burdensome than the Byzantine Empire.
14th and 15th century. A network of merchants from the same city or country who live permanently in foreign lands and cooperate with one another to pursue trading opportunities. This helped when the Ottoman's cut off trade between the Europeans and India. It also helped open up a more efficient global market. Opened up many markets in Africa.
14th century. A period of classical revival. Resulted in intellectual and artistic creativity within Europe. European unity and culture was strengthened with an access to old classical literature and ideas.
14th century. The study of the humanities: rhetoric, poetry, and philosophy based on the works of the ancient Romans and Greeks. Provided the foundations for the Renaissance.
1325-1521. A terrace for farming and house building. In shallows of lake in Mexico. Used by Aztecs. Highly advanced systems of agriculture.
1325-1521- Aztecs. The mesoamerican practice of personal blood-letting as a means of paying debts to the gods.
1325-1521- Aztecs. Taxes paid to state or empire. Usually farm goods, manufactures, human labor, or human bodies.
1430-1532- Incas. Andean system of planting crops and grazing animals at different altitudes. Allowed the natives to have diverse diet.
1430-1532- Incas. As scared place or thing in Andean culture.
1430-1532-Incas. Knotted cotton or alpaca fiber used by the Incas to record tributes, troop numbers, and narratives of events. The society was highly organized and kept a very good census.