a royal German family that provided rulers for several European states and wore the crown of the Holy Roman Empire from 1440 to 1806
Holy Roman Emperor
Title given to a person who had charge of not only the empire, but also the church
the southwestern tip of Europe where the modern nations of Spain and Portugal are located
Philip II's naval force sent to attack England; its defeat greatly hindered Spain's ability to impose Catholicism on Western Europe.
Siglo de Oro
the Spanish Golden Age: a period of flourishing in arts and literature in Spain, coinciding with the political rise and decline of the Spanish Hapsburg dynasty
William of Orange
Ruler of the Netherlands who led a revolt for independence against Hapsburg Philip II of Spain.
United Provinces of the Netherlands
formed in 1581 (the Dutch republic), and led by William of Orange I against the Spanish Inquisition, eventually declaring political and religious independence from spain with help from Elizabeth I of GB.
Catherine de Medicis
real power behind the throne during this period was their mother, she tried to preserve royal authority.
Henry of Navarre
Political leader of the Huguenots and a member of the Bourbon dynasty, succeeded to the throne as Henry IV. He realized that as a Protestant he would never be accepted by Catholic France, so he converted to Catholicism. When he became king in 1594, the fighting in France finally came to an end.
a European royal line that ruled in France (from 1589-1793) and Spain and Naples and Sicily