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Charles V

Child of Joanne and Hapsburgs, became the king of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor


a royal German family that provided rulers for several European states and wore the crown of the Holy Roman Empire from 1440 to 1806

Holy Roman Emperor

Title given to a person who had charge of not only the empire, but also the church

Philip II

Charles V's son, who inherited Spain, the Spanish Netherlands, and the American colonies

Iberian Peninsula

the southwestern tip of Europe where the modern nations of Spain and Portugal are located

The Reconquista (1492)

the campaign to drive Muslims from Spain

Spanish Armada

Philip II's naval force sent to attack England; its defeat greatly hindered Spain's ability to impose Catholicism on Western Europe.

Siglo de Oro

the Spanish Golden Age: a period of flourishing in arts and literature in Spain, coinciding with the political rise and decline of the Spanish Hapsburg dynasty


Spanish Muslims

William of Orange

Ruler of the Netherlands who led a revolt for independence against Hapsburg Philip II of Spain.

United Provinces of the Netherlands

formed in 1581 (the Dutch republic), and led by William of Orange I against the Spanish Inquisition, eventually declaring political and religious independence from spain with help from Elizabeth I of GB.

the Dutch East India Company

Company that controlled Dutch trade in the Far East

Catherine de Medicis

real power behind the throne during this period was their mother, she tried to preserve royal authority.


French Protestants

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

massacre of Huguenots on St. Bartholomew's Day

Henry of Navarre

Political leader of the Huguenots and a member of the Bourbon dynasty, succeeded to the throne as Henry IV. He realized that as a Protestant he would never be accepted by Catholic France, so he converted to Catholicism. When he became king in 1594, the fighting in France finally came to an end.

Bourbon dynasty

a European royal line that ruled in France (from 1589-1793) and Spain and Naples and Sicily

Edict of Nantes

document that granted religious freedom to the Huguenots

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